Will cbd oil show positive for thc on urinalasy
CBD will not show up in a drug test because drug tests are not screening for it. CBD products may well contain THC, however, so you can fail a drug test after taking CBD products. If you take CBD oil, you should plan accordingly if your work or activities require you to undergo drug testing. In the most common workplace drug screen—a urine test—employers aren’t looking for CBD, because CBD has never been found to impair judgment or motor skills. Instead, workers fail workplace drug testing for marijuana’s main active ingredient, THC, which can exist in low amounts in some CBD products and then persist in the human body for weeks. Furthermore, if you consume enough CBD—on the order of 1,000 milligrams a day of CBD—just the residual THC could put your test results in the danger zone. This is a big deal because a failed drug test can result in the denial of loss of both job and income, and can also lead individuals to lose access to important resources like education and welfare benefits, child custody, and prescriptions for pain medication.
How much THC needs to be present to cause a positive drug test?
It is difficult to say how much THC needs to be present to cause a positive drug test because this depends on several drug and patient-specific variables, and also the cutoff value for the test.
The following variables affect the amount of time that marijuana (THC) and its metabolites remain detectable in the urine or other biological samples:
- Frequency of marijuana use (the half-life of THC is 1.3 days for an infrequent user and 5-13 days for frequent users)
- Presence of interacting drugs
- How much is used and the route of administration
- Last time of ingestion.
Several patient factors can also affect the result, such as body mass, urine pH, urine concentration and other medical conditions such as kidney or liver disease.
An estimate of the length of time marijuana (THC) is detectable in urine is:
- Single-use: 3 days
- Moderate use (4 times/week): 5 to 7 days
- Chronic use (daily): 10 to 15 days
- Chronic heavy use: More than 30 days.
Federal workplace cutoff values for marijuana metabolites are 50 ng/mL for immunoassay screening tests (one ng is a billionth of a gram). In a confirmatory test, a metabolite of marijuana is measured, called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, and a positive test result is above 15 ng/mL. However, this can vary depending on the variables listed above and should not be relied upon to ensure a drug-free result
Other Things to Know About Workplace Drug Testing
Despite the widespread use of urine drug tests, there appears to be some inconsistency in the interpretation of test results. Considering the significant consequences a false-positive result can have (such as loss of job or imprisonment), this is somewhat surprising. But it is also something to be aware of, because it may mean that what is considered a pass (a negative result) in some circumstances may be considered a fail (a positive result) in others.
Drug testing can be conducted on various biological specimens, such as urine, hair, blood, saliva, sweat, toenails, fingernails, and meconium. Urine drug testing is the most common way of workplace testing for specific drugs because it is not invasive, and samples are easy to collect.
Drug tests either test for the parent drug or at least one of its metabolites, or both. Concentrations of drugs in urine are usually higher than in blood and present for longer.
There are two main types of urine drug tests: screening and confirmatory tests. Immunoassay screening tests can be conducted on-site (point of care testing) or in a laboratory and allow large numbers of tests to be performed at once with relatively rapid results, providing an initial estimate of the presence or absence of drugs. There are three main types available, and all use antibodies to detect the presence of specific or classes of drug metabolites. Unfortunately, this can mean that substances with similar characteristics may be detected, resulting in false-positive results.
Some visual point of care tests are favored by pain management clinics or by clinicians treating people with substance misuse disorders. However, at times the results may be difficult to read (such as a faint color or an uncertain color) which can result in a subjective interpretation. These tests should only be considered preliminary and a follow up confirmatory laboratory test should be conducted, as with any screening test; however, this best practice may not always be followed.
Confirmatory tests (Drug of Abuse Panel tests) use gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify specific molecular structures and to quantify the amount of drug or a substance present in the sample. These are more accurate than screening tests, but are also more costly and time-consuming and are usually reserved for situations that have significant legal, academic, forensic, or employment sequelae. These recognize cannabinoids rather than metabolites so should be able to distinguish CBD from THC.
Cut-off levels were established to help minimize false-positive results especially in workplace drug testing (for example, passive inhalation of marijuana; eating poppy seeds on bread causing positive opiate results) and these tend to be higher than those used by clinical laboratories
Will cbd oil show positive for thc on urinalasy
The parent drug, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has a clearance half-life of less than 30 minutes and is not detectable in urine. Following a dose of THC, the metabolite typically appears in the urine within 60 minutes, but can take as long as 4 hours.
Note: The presence of the major THC-COOH > LOQ indicates exposure to THC within 3 days after a single use, to approximately 30 days in heavy chronic users.
- The major metabolite is tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). THC-COOH is inactive and very lipid soluble.
Delta-8-THC: A new synthetic cannabinoid poses problems for testing
In states where recreational cannabis products are still illegal, authorities are seeing a large increase in sales of products containing delta-8-THC. “Delta-8” is a chemical cousin of delta-9-THC, the main cannabinoid responsible for the euphoria of marijuana. Delta-8 is less potent than delta-9, but interacts with the same brain receptors and can produce a “high.” Unfortunately, delta-8 interferes with testing for delta-9 in both presumptive and definitive urine drug tests, according to Quest Diagnostics Medical Science Liaison, Jack Kain, PharmD.
The rise in the sale of delta-8 products is tied to the 2018 federal Farm Bill, which made it legal to grow hemp. Like marijuana, hemp is a variety of the plant Cannabis sativa, but is bred to contain less than 0.3% delta-9, too little for the “high” of marijuana. Hemp does contain large amounts of cannabidiol (CBD), which is mostly legal and widely used for its purported health benefits.
CBD can be chemically converted into delta-8, Dr Kain said, “and in recent years, it has grown in production and selling as medicinal or recreational cannabis products, resulting in the proliferation of delta-8-THC vape liquids, tinctures, and edibles.”
The legality of delta-8 is in something of a gray zone. According to the most recent rule from the Drug Enforcement Administration, “All synthetically derived tetrahydrocannabinols remain schedule I controlled substances,” 1 but the rule did not clarify whether such compounds converted from CBD, a legal hemp product, are included. Absent such clarification, many states that have not legalized recreational marijuana have declared delta-8 to be illegal.
The similarity in the names of delta-8-THC and delta-9-THC is an indication of how close they are structurally, differing only in the position of one double bond in one ring within the THC molecule. That similarity carries over into their major urinary metabolites, delta-8-THCA and delta-9-THCA, which also differ in only one bond.
Those similarities can lead to challenges in testing, Dr Kain said. For presumptive testing, which uses an immunoassay, the structural similarity between the two metabolites leads to high antibody cross-reactivity. Thus, a presumptive test for a person who has used a delta-8 product (which may be legal in the state where he or she resides) may give a false positive for delta-9-THC. The two metabolites also have the same molecular weight and very similar chemical properties, meaning delta-8-THCA can interfere with detection of delta-9-THCA, leading to a false negative on definitive testing.
Clinicians should keep these important caveats in mind when using the results of a test for delta-9-THC in counseling their patients.