herbs for life cbd oil

Our Products: CBD GUMMIES & OILS (Sold @ Small Pharmacies)

Delta-8 and Delta-9 THC are chemically different due to the location of a critical chemical bond. Both cannabinoids contain double bonds in their molecular chains. Delta-8’s bond is on the 8th carbon chain, while Delta-9’s is on the 9th carbon chain – hence their names. Although it’s a slight difference, the effects are noticeably different when the compound binds to the body’s endocannabinoid receptors.

Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil – Is It Scam Or Legit? Read More

Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil – Bone Strength That Comes Naturally!

Here is now a CBD hemp product that will make you happier and less nervous. Before we get started, let’s take a look at what this CBD gummy is and what it can do for you. CBD that is known as cannabidiol, is extracted from the hemp plant. It will provide you with any mental effects like other natural cannabinoids of rare nature. This product gives you a feeling of calm and no drowsiness. This is the perfect key product for the treatment of chronic pains, sleep disorders, epilepsy and insomnia. It was previously banned from selling these products, but it has now been legalized for sale in the United States. Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil is a completely consumer friendly and pure organic pain curative product that is expected to solve pain through naturalised high grade pure oils without letting adverse effect be caused to your health.

===> (LIMITED STOCK) Click Here to Order Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil at a Special Discounted Price Today!

In this important CBD review, we will reveal its various benefits, side effects, and product prices. People with sleep disorders, insomnia, chronic pain and anxiety can now sit on the backrest. After ten years of research work and thousands of clinical trials, a product called Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil appeared. Therefore, you will find out that the product has no side effects and is safe. Based on market trends, this is currently the number one selling CBD product. This review is based solely on the research done on the product and the feedback collected from its customers.

Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil – what is the supplement?

Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil is a leading and promising high-quality CBD product. This has put all the old and most famous companies in the industry in trouble. Over time, it has become a mature and reliable CBD gummy. It is formulated with the purest and cleanest natural and plant extracts as ingredients. They are mainly manufactured by renowned scientists in well-maintained laboratories. Its typical combination contains CBD and other essential minerals, which can help users improve their overall health in a timely manner. This is proven to be 100% herbal and organic.

What is the working process followed in the gummy?

It does not even contain the smallest amount of herbicides, fertilizers or pesticides. As mentioned earlier, Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil only uses Omega 3, cannabinoids, vitamins and several natural essential amino acids. It is a non-GMO formula that contains the exact power rating of CBD. This is best for people with chronic pain, severe insomnia, symptoms of anxiety or depression, and stress. In addition, it is mainly suitable for your sleep cycle and improves mental clarity. This actually slows down the decline in cognitive health due to age and other variety of reasons.

What are the ingredients present in the gummy?

  • Organic Hemp Oil – treat inflammation and often occurring painful sores with its amazing anti-inflammatory accessories and in the meanwhile also stops the bacterial growths that may be forming
  • Eucalyptus Oil – this can treat arthritis, sclerosis and knee pain and help you heal the swelling caused by chronic pain, while also lubricating joints internally and promoting your new smooth movement
  • Cannabis Extricate – it has the ability to regenerate cells once damaged, and reduces the main cause of chronic pain and the significant benefits of it helps you be at a safer space with relation to pains
  • Lavender Zest – this zest in the CBD gummy can reduce severe or moderate insomnia without affecting your body’s metabolism and being THC-free this will keep you away from high THC levels
  • Clove Extracts – it keeps you away from anxiety, chronic pain related stress and the wide range of benefits can give you healthy inflammatory response and target your nervous system to cure fully

Medical tests done upon Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil:

This has the required extricates to suppress the anxiety and addiction you often felt. We must tell you that this product is used by many doctors and celebrities by themselves. Because it has been medically tested and verified by health experts, Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil puts your mental, physical and nerve health under control. It mainly improves your ability to concentrate and provides you with better mental clarity and a memory. Lubricate your joints and greatly improve your mobility and flexibility, while also providing you the essential nutrients and reducing inflammation too.

Other characteristics of the new CBD supplement:

This gummy struggles to a greater extent with health disorders such as stress and anxiety. You do not need help or medical advice when Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil is here. Legally marketed throughout the United States this has zero side effects and 100% safe use. Easy to consume without difficulty and use of natural extracts that are organic ingredients are its hallmarks. The disadvantages may include things like it is forbidden for lactating women. It can be purchased online only, and not available yet in any of their retail stores. Not suitable for people who are receiving other medication.

===> (EXCLUSIVE OFFER) Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil Is Available At Lowest Cost! Click Here To Visit Now!!

What are the benefits of Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil?

It is also very helpful for the treatment of swelling caused by chronic pain. Oils added provide lubrication to the joints. Therefore, it can improve joint health and smooth joint movement. This is going to quickly relieve pain and work to promote joint health. Chronic pain is sure to disappear, control brought over high blood pressure, anxiety shall get relieved and also has the capability to regulate insomnia and relax your mood. Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil improves cognitive health, and is consumed widely in the United States. It is completely legal and as a matter of fact has no side effects.

Is it really safe to use Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil?

Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil is very safe, so you don’t need to worry about it. Scientists and users alike have shown that it is safe and 100% organic. However, there are several misunderstandings and doubts about this product in the market, regarding it to be made from hemp plant extracts. Therefore, you do not have to listen to the advice of others or follow any rumours. We always can clarify all your questions and queries. Market sales can be seen and proves that users have confidence in it. Today, we are leading manufacturer in this field and has made relief an easier concept for all.

How can one gain from the use of this product?

This product is famous for wide range of advantages and affordable price, which is not available in other products. Both men and women have benefited a lot from it. Especially a whole generation seems to be hooked on it. Customers flooded our website with their best experience and feedback. This can only be purchased from its official website due to its legality and popularity. Since the market is flooded with counterfeit CBD products, it is best to confirm the products before ordering. Thus all in all you can benefit from this supplement in a multitude of natural ways.

The ordering procedure for this new supplement:

The web link page provided will guide you through for placing this order so that you can be delivered with the supplement in three to four business days. Please read all terms available and other conditions carefully before making the payment. You can also look for different deals and discounts that await you. Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil is originally made from organic CBD plants harvested in the USA and this aims to extend a helping hand to help people solve health problems. For other instructions in a detailed manner you are required to view the site and make a decision.

Why should one trust on Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil?

This new one called Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil is your blessing in disguise! Do you accept that suffering is a natural part of life? Did all the actions you tried to undo the pains failed? Maybe it’s time to change your perception of pain. We have created an amazing new product and its facts have proved that it is a boon for people suffering from arthritis and joint pain. Whether it is knee pain, lower back pain, or any other pain, this product promises to solve all your pain in just 30 days or less. This pain reliever health supplement fights your pain in a way that it will never happen again.

Facts and dimensions of work of the supplement:

The thing that makes Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil different is that it just removes pains from the root cause. Don’t you think this is a real blessing? You really want to learn more, right? This pain reliever gummy released in the market, is expected to help you in many ways. It is no exaggeration to say that it is a comprehensive solution for 99% of your pain and health problems. In addition to miraculously eliminating your pain, its anti-inflammatory properties also ensure that your chronic pain is gone forever. It can quickly treat common problems like back pain, deep joint pain, and arthritis.

Impacts of the gummy on depression and cognition:

Working as an amazing supplement, Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil can also reduce anxiety, pain originating stress, and high blood pressure. Hence, it is very effective in treating depression and related insomnia as well. Extracted from hemp and grown entirely organically in your own United States, the product has no potential side effects. It can also improve your cognitive health, don’t you believe me? This product is formulated by highly trusted American researchers, using all known green herbs to treat chronic pain. It is a very powerful combination of drugs that can cure all issues.

Has Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil performed satisfactorily?

Removing chronic pain effectively and permanently is the hallmark of Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil. It can regenerate all damaged cells and remove pain from the root. At the same time, we can ensure that the pain does not return at any time in the future. This also promotes joint health and finer mobility. Every benefit it provides is done in a completely natural way. Lavender used can effectively treat inflammation caused by very painful sores. It is widely used and is known for its incredible properties. The performance of the product is greatly spoken by the high turnover of it.

Exotic ingredients and constituents of the gummy:

The benefits of hemp are widely known around the world. This extract can cleanse your body naturally. Hemp is the main element that this CBD contains. It is responsible for renewing of the damaged cells, which is the true cause of chronic pain. By now Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil has been used to treat pain since many months. It is very effective in treating joint and muscle pain as this works quickly and gives you quick relief. Rich in compounds that relieve pain, when mixed with marijuana, it can effectively treat arthritis pain that is told to be of the major and serious kind.

What do experts opine about this new CBD gummies?

Our researchers are very confident about Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil and said that you can use it without worries. No chemicals have got added and this makes it completely safe to use. Overdose can sometimes cause minor problems such as dizziness, so stick to the prescribed dosage. After extensive testing, our researchers mentioned the correct dosage on the product label and website. Follow the instructions very strictly to avoid complications. If you are already taking any medications, consult your doctor before using this product and are buying extensively.

SEE ALSO: (EXCLUSIVE OFFER) Click Here to Order Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil The Lowest Price Online

Final Verdict:

The customer evaluation has given the gummy highest of ratings. After this product became popular in the market, the sales volume only increased. Everyone seems to be fascinated with this. Doctors and nutritionists now do not prescribe various pains supplement. So far, only positive reviews have been received and no complaints registered. Herbal Pro Relief CBD Oil can only be purchased online. Place an order on the main official website. Hurry up and take advantage of interesting discounts. Your life needs healing and this is a blessing for you. Buy it now to instantly heal all unnecessary pain.

Cannabidiol (CBD)

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical in the Cannabis sativa plant, also known as cannabis or hemp. One specific form of CBD is approved as a drug in the U.S. for seizure.

Over 80 chemicals, known as cannabinoids, have been found in the Cannabis sativa plant. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most famous ingredient in cannabis. But CBD is obtained from hemp, a form of the Cannabis sativa plant that only contains small amounts of THC. CBD seems to have effects on some chemicals in the brain, but these are different than the effects of THC.

A prescription form of CBD is used for seizure disorder (epilepsy). CBD is also used for anxiety, pain, a muscle disorder called dystonia, Parkinson disease, Crohn disease, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Laws passed in 2018 made it legal to sell hemp and hemp products in the US. But that doesn’t mean that all CBD products made from hemp are legal. Since CBD is an approved prescription drug, it can’t be legally included in foods or dietary supplements. CBD can only be included in “cosmetic” products. But there are still CBD products on the market that are labeled as dietary supplements. The amount of CBD contained in these products is not always the same as what is stated on the label.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

See also  cbd oil for sale outside gas station

The effectiveness ratings for CANNABIDIOL (CBD) are as follows:

Likely effective for.

  • Seizure disorder (epilepsy). A specific prescription product (Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals) is approved by the US FDA to treat seizures caused by Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or tuberous sclerosis complex. It is unclear if other forms of CBD are helpful for seizure. For now, stick with the prescription product.

Is it safe?

When taken by mouth: CBD is possibly safe to take in appropriate doses. Doses of up to 200 mg daily have been used safely for up to 13 weeks. With the guidance of a healthcare provider, a specific prescription CBD product (Epidiolex) has been used at higher doses and for longer durations.

CBD can cause some side effects, such as dry mouth, low blood pressure, light headedness, and drowsiness. Signs of liver injury have also been reported with high doses of the prescription form of CBD, called Epidiolex.

When applied to the skin: There isn’t enough reliable information to know if CBD is safe or what the side effects might be.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It may be unsafe to take CBD if you are pregnant or breast feeding. CBD products can be contaminated with other ingredients that may be harmful to the fetus or infant. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: It is possibly safe for children to take a specific prescription CBD product (Epidiolex) by mouth in doses up to 25 mg/kg daily. This product is approved for use in children with certain conditions who are at least 1 year old. It isn’t clear if other CBD products are safe in children.

Liver disease: People with liver disease may need to use lower doses of CBD.

Parkinson disease: Some early research suggests that taking high doses of CBD might make muscle movement and tremors worse in some people with Parkinson disease.

Are there interactions with medications?

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Are there interactions with foods?

CBD can be taken with food or without food. But taking it with food can cause the body to absorb more CBD than when it is taken without food. This might increase the effects of CBD.

Fatty foods or drinks, such as whole milk, and alcohol can also make the body absorb more CBD.

How is it typically used?

CBD has most often been used by adults in doses of 200 mg or less per day. Speak with a healthcare provider to find out what dose might be best for a specific condition.

For information on using prescription CBD, a product called Epidiolex, speak with a healthcare provider.

Other names

Methodology

To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.

References

  1. Carvalho RK, Rocha TL, Fernandes FH, et al. Decreasing sperm quality in mice subjected to chronic cannabidiol exposure: New insights of cannabidiol-mediated male reproductive toxicity. Chem Biol Interact 2022;351:109743. View abstract.
  2. Harris HM, Gul W, ElSohly MA, Sufka KJ. Differential Effects of Cannabidiol and a Novel Cannabidiol Analog on Oxycodone Place Preference and Analgesia in Mice: an Opioid Abuse Deterrent with Analgesic Properties. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021. View abstract.
  3. Sepulveda DE, Morris DP, Raup-Konsavage WM, Sun D, Vrana KE, Graziane NM. Evaluating the Antinociceptive Efficacy of Cannabidiol Alone or in Combination with Morphine Using the Formalin Test in Male and Female Mice. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021. View abstract.
  4. Kaufmann R, Aqua K, Lombardo J, Lee M. Observed Impact of Long-term Consumption of Oral Cannabidiol on Liver Function in Healthy Adults. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021. View abstract.
  5. Jones É, Vlachou S. Cannabidiol Does Not Cause Significant Changes to Working Memory Performance in the N-Back Task. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021;14:1165. View abstract.
  6. Bolsoni LM, Crippa JAS, Hallak JEC, Guimarães FS, Zuardi AW. Effects of cannabidiol on symptoms induced by the recall of traumatic events in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2022. View abstract.
  7. Nguyen LC, Yang D, Nicolaescu V, et al. Cannabidiol inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication through induction of the host ER stress and innate immune responses. Sci Adv 2022. View abstract.
  8. Köck P, Lang E, Trulley VN, et al. Cannabidiol Cigarettes as Adjunctive Treatment for Psychotic Disorders – A Randomized, Open-Label Pilot-Study. Front Psychiatry 2021;12:736822. View abstract.
  9. Crippa JAS, Pacheco JC, Zuardi AW, et al. Cannabidiol for COVID-19 Patients with Mild to Moderate Symptoms (CANDIDATE Study): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021. View abstract.
  10. Klotz KA, Grob D, Schönberger J, et al. Effect of Cannabidiol on Interictal Epileptiform Activity and Sleep Architecture in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: A Prospective Open-Label Study. CNS Drugs 2021;35:1207-1215. View abstract.
  11. Baranowska-Kuczko M, Kozlowska H, Kloza M, et al. Vasoprotective Endothelial Effects of Chronic Cannabidiol Treatment and Its Influence on the Endocannabinoid System in Rats with Primary and Secondary Hypertension. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021;14:1120. View abstract.
  12. Carmona-Hidalgo B, García-Martín A, Muñoz E, González-Mariscal I. Detrimental Effect of Cannabidiol on the Early Onset of Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Mice. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021;14:863. View abstract.
  13. Thiele EA, Bebin EM, Filloux F, et al. Long-term cannabidiol treatment for seizures in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex: An open-label extension trial. Epilepsia 2021. View abstract.
  14. Hotz J, Fehlmann B, Papassotiropoulos A, de Quervain DJ, Schicktanz NS. Cannabidiol enhances verbal episodic memory in healthy young participants: A randomized clinical trial. J Psychiatr Res 2021;143:327-333. View abstract.
  15. Nasrin S, Watson CJW, Perez-Paramo YX, Lazarus P. Cannabinoid Metabolites as Inhibitors of Major Hepatic CYP450 Enzymes, with Implications for Cannabis-Drug Interactions. Drug Metab Dispos 2021;49:1070-1080. View abstract.
  16. Davis BH, Beasley TM, Amaral M, et al. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Cannabidiol Response and Tolerability in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021;110:1368-1380. View abstract.
  17. Partridge Snow & Hahn LLP. FDA Refuses to Approve CBVD As a Food Ingredient or Supplement. August 19, 2021. Available at: https://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/fda-refuses-to-approve-cbd-as-a-food-1880558. Accessed October 26, 2021.
  18. Masterson D. CBD from orange peels: A different CBD story. August 3, 2021. Available at: https://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Article/2021/08/03/CBD-from-orange-peels-A-different-CBD-story?utm_source=newsletter_daily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=03-Aug-2021&cid=DM973784&bid=1668435211. Accessed October 26, 2021.
  19. Yu JS, Premkumar A, Liu S, Sculco P. Rates of self-directed perioperative cannabidiol use in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Pain Manag 2021;11:655-660. View abstract.
  20. Vela J, Dreyer L, Petersen KK, Lars AN, Duch KS, Kristensen S. Cannabidiol treatment in hand osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Pain 2021. View abstract.
  21. Isenmann E, Veit S, Starke L, Flenker U, Diel P. Effects of Cannabidiol Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Intensive Resistance Training. Nutrients 2021;13:3028. View abstract.
  22. Scheffer IE, Halford JJ, Miller I, et al. Add-on cannabidiol in patients with Dravet syndrome: Results of a long-term open-label extension trial. Epilepsia 2021;62:2505-2517. View abstract.
  23. Madan Cohen J, Checketts D, Dunayevich E, et al. Time to onset of cannabidiol treatment effects in Dravet syndrome: Analysis from two randomized controlled trials. Epilepsia 2021;62:2218-2227. View abstract.
  24. Patel AD, Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M, Chin RF, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of add-on cannabidiol in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Results of a long-term open-label extension trial. Epilepsia 2021;62:2228-2239. View abstract.
  25. Scheffer IE, Hulihan J, Messenheimer J, et al. Safety and Tolerability of Transdermal Cannabidiol Gel in Children With Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e2123930. View abstract.
  26. Devinsky O, Kraft K, Rusch L, Fein M, Leone-Bay A. Improved Bioavailability with Dry Powder Cannabidiol Inhalation: A Phase 1 Clinical Study. J Pharm Sci 2021. View abstract.
  27. Czégény Z, Nagy G, Babinszki B, et al. CBD, a precursor of THC in e-cigarettes. Sci Rep 2021;11:8951. View abstract.
  28. Crippa JAS, Zuardi AW, Guimarães FS, et al. Burnout and Distress Prevention With Cannabidiol in Front-line Health Care Workers Dealing With COVID-19 (BONSAI) Trial Investigators. Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Plus Standard Care vs Standard Care Alone for the Treatment of Emotional Exhaustion and Burnout Among Frontline Health Care Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Aug 2;4:e2120603. View abstract.
  29. Arout CA, Haney M, Herrmann ES, Bedi G, Cooper ZD. The dose-dependent analgesic effects, abuse liability, safety and tolerability of oral cannabidiol in healthy humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021. View abstract.
  30. Velayudhan L, McGoohan K, Bhattacharyya S. Safety and tolerability of natural and synthetic cannabinoids in adults aged over 50 years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2021;18:e1003524. View abstract.
  31. van Orten-Luiten AB, de Roos NM, Majait S, Witteman BJM, Witkamp RF. Effects of Cannabidiol Chewing Gum on Perceived Pain and Well-Being of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients: A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Exploratory Intervention Study with Symptom-Driven Dosing. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021. View abstract.
  32. Thai C, Tayo B, Critchley D. A Phase 1 Open-Label, Fixed-Sequence Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cannabidiol on the CYP1A2 Probe Caffeine in Healthy Subjects. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2021. View abstract.
  33. Spinella TC, Stewart SH, Naugler J, Yakovenko I, Barrett SP. Evaluating cannabidiol (CBD) expectancy effects on acute stress and anxiety in healthy adults: a randomized crossover study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2021. View abstract.
  34. Schneider T, Zurbriggen L, Dieterle M, et al. Pain response to cannabidiol in induced acute nociceptive pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia by using a model mimicking acute pain in healthy adults in a randomized trial (CANAB I). Pain. 2021. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002310. View abstract.
  35. Maghfour J, Rundle CW, Rietcheck HR, et al. Assessing the effects of topical cannabidiol in patients with atopic dermatitis. Dermatol Online J. 2021;27:13030/qt8h50k2vs. View abstract.
  36. Leweke FM, Rohleder C, Gerth CW, Hellmich M, Pukrop R, Koethe D. Cannabidiol and Amisulpride Improve Cognition in Acute Schizophrenia in an Explorative, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:614811. View abstract.
  37. Karoly HC, Mueller RL, Andrade CC, Hutchison KE. THC and CBD effects on alcohol use among alcohol and cannabis co-users. Psychol Addict Behav. 2021. View abstract.
  38. Gaston TE, Ampah SB, Martina Bebin E, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of highly purified cannabidiol for treatment refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2021;117:107862. View abstract.
  39. de Almeida CMO, Brito MMC, Bosaipo NB, et al. Cannabidiol for Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder. Mov Disord. 2021. View abstract.
  40. Berger BA, Stolz U, Colvin J, Otten EJ. Epidemiology of cannabidiol related cases reported in the National Poison Data System – 2019-2020. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;48:218-223. View abstract.
  41. Bebee B, Taylor DM, Bourke E, et al. The CANBACK trial: a randomised, controlled clinical trial of oral cannabidiol for people presenting to the emergency department with acute low back pain. Med J Aust. 2021;214:370-375. View abstract.
  42. Anderson LL, Doohan PT, Oldfield L, et al. Citalopram and Cannabidiol: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Relevant to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Young People. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2021. View abstract.
  43. Watkins PB, Church RJ, Li J, Knappertz V. Cannabidiol and Abnormal Liver Chemistries in Healthy Adults: Results of a Phase I Clinical Trial. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020. View abstract.
  44. Thiele EA, Bebin EM, Bhathal H, et al. Add-On Cannabidiol Treatment for Drug-Resistant Seizures in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol. 2020. View abstract.
  45. Santos de Alencar S, Crippa JAS, Brito MCM, Pimentel ÂV, Cecilio Hallak JE, Tumas V. A single oral dose of cannabidiol did not reduce upper limb tremor in patients with essential tremor. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2021;83:37-40. View abstract.
  46. Parihar V, Rogers A, Blain AM, Zacharias SRK, Patterson LL, Siyam MA. Reduction in Tamoxifen Metabolites Endoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen With Chronic Administration of Low Dose Cannabidiol: A CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Drug Interaction. J Pharm Pract. 2020:897190020972208. View abstract.
  47. Oruganti P, Betcher S, Wakade Z, Ding X, Abegunde AT. Cannabidiol Oil-Associated Microscopic Colitis. Cureus. 2020;12:e10528. View abstract.
  48. Leehey MA, Liu Y, Hart F, et al. Safety and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Parkinson Disease: An Open Label, Dose-Escalation Study. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2020;5:326-336. View abstract.
  49. Hosseini A, McLachlan AJ, Lickliter JD. A phase I trial of the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered as single-dose oil solution and single and multiple doses of a sublingual wafer in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020. View abstract.
  50. Freeman TP, Hindocha C, Baio G, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis use disorder: a phase 2a, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, adaptive Bayesian trial. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020; 7:865-874. View abstract.
  51. Cochrane-Snyman KC, Cruz C, Morales J, Coles M. The Effects of Cannabidiol Oil on Noninvasive Measures of Muscle Damage in Men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021. View abstract.
  52. Capano A, Weaver R, Burkman E. Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study. Postgrad Med. 2020;132:56-61. View abstract.
  53. Woelfl T, Rohleder C, Mueller JK, et al. Effects of Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Emotion, Cognition, and Attention: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Experimental Trial in Healthy Volunteers. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:576877. View abstract.
  54. Cole TB, Saitz R. Cannabis and Impaired Driving. JAMA. 2020;324:2163-2164. View abstract.
  55. Arkell TR, Vinckenbosch F, Kevin RC, Theunissen EL, McGregor IS, Ramaekers JG. Effect of Cannabidiol and ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Driving Performance: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2020;324:2177-2186. View abstract.
  56. Singh RK, Dillon B, Tatum DA, Van Poppel KC, Bonthius DJ. Drug-Drug Interactions Between Cannabidiol and Lithium. Child Neurol Open. 2020;7:2329048X20947896. View abstract.
  57. Izgelov D, Davidson E, Barasch D, Regev A, Domb AJ, Hoffman A. Pharmacokinetic investigation of synthetic cannabidiol oral formulations in healthy volunteers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2020;154:108-115. View abstract.
  58. Gurley BJ, Murphy TP, Gul W, Walker LA, ElSohly M. Content versus Label Claims in Cannabidiol (CBD)-Containing Products Obtained from Commercial Outlets in the State of Mississippi. J Diet Suppl. 2020;17:599-607. View abstract.
  59. McGuire P, Robson P, Cubala WJ, et al. Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.Am J Psychiatry. 2018;175:225-231. View abstract.
  60. Cortopassi J. Warfarin dose adjustment required after cannabidiol initiation and titration. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2020;77:1846-1851. View abstract.
  61. Bloomfield MAP, Green SF, Hindocha C, et al. The effects of acute cannabidiol on cerebral blood flow and its relationship to memory: An arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging study. J Psychopharmacol. 2020;34:981-989. View abstract.
  62. Lopez HL, Cesareo KR, Raub B, et al. Effects of hemp extract on markers of wellness, stress resilience, recovery and clinical biomarkers of safety in overweight, but otherwise healthy subjects. J Diet Suppl. 2020;17:561-86. View abstracts.
  63. Wang GS, Bourne DWA, Klawitter J, et al. Disposition of Oral Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extracts in Children with Epilepsy. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2020. View abstract.
  64. Taylor L, Crockett J, Tayo B, Checketts D, Sommerville K. Abrupt withdrawal of cannabidiol (CBD): A randomized trial. Epilepsy Behav. 2020;104(Pt A):106938. View abstract.
  65. McNamara NA, Dang LT, Sturza J, et al. Thrombocytopenia in pediatric patients on concurrent cannabidiol and valproic acid. Epilepsia. 2020. View abstract.
  66. Rianprakaisang T, Gerona R, Hendrickson RG. Commercial cannabidiol oil contaminated with the synthetic cannabinoid AB-FUBINACA given to a pediatric patient. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2020;58:215-216. View abstract.
  67. Morrison G, Crockett J, Blakey G, Sommerville K. A Phase 1, Open-Label, Pharmacokinetic Trial to Investigate Possible Drug-Drug Interactions Between Clobazam, Stiripentol, or Valproate and Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2019;8:1009-1031. View abstract.
  68. Miller I, Scheffer IE, Gunning B, et al. Dose-Ranging Effect of Adjunctive Oral Cannabidiol vs Placebo on Convulsive Seizure Frequency in Dravet Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol. 2020;77:613-621. View abstract.
  69. Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, et al. Cannabidiol efficacy and clobazam status: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsia. 2020;61:1090-1098. View abstract.
  70. Hobbs JM, Vazquez AR, Remijan ND, et al. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics and acute anti-inflammatory potential of two oral cannabidiol preparations in healthy adults. Phytother Res. 2020;34:1696-1703. View abstract.
  71. Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Agricola KD, Tudor C, Krueger D, Franz DN. Cannabidiol Elevates Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Inhibitor Levels in Patients With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Pediatr Neurol. 2020;105:59-61. View abstract.
  72. de Carvalho Reis R, Almeida KJ, da Silva Lopes L, de Melo Mendes CM, Bor-Seng-Shu E. Efficacy and adverse event profile of cannabidiol and medicinal cannabis for treatment-resistant epilepsy: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsy Behav. 2020;102:106635. View abstract.
  73. Darweesh RS, Khamis TN, El-Elimat T. The effect of cannabidiol on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2020. View abstract.
  74. Crockett J, Critchley D, Tayo B, Berwaerts J, Morrison G. A phase 1, randomized, pharmacokinetic trial of the effect of different meal compositions, whole milk, and alcohol on cannabidiol exposure and safety in healthy subjects. Epilepsia. 2020;61:267-277. View abstract.
  75. Chesney E, Oliver D, Green A, et al. Adverse effects of cannabidiol: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2020. View abstract.
  76. Ben-Menachem E, Gunning B, Arenas Cabrera CM, et al. A Phase II Randomized Trial to Explore the Potential for Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions with Stiripentol or Valproate when Combined with Cannabidiol in Patients with Epilepsy. CNS Drugs. 2020;34:661-672. View abstract.
  77. Bass J, Linz DR. A Case of Toxicity from Cannabidiol Gummy Ingestion. Cureus. 2020;12:e7688. View abstract.
  78. Hampson AJ, Grimaldi M, Axelrod J, Wink D. Cannabidiol and (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8268-73. View abstract.
  79. Hacke ACM, Lima D, de Costa F, et al. Probing the antioxidant activity of [delta]-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts. Analyst. 2019;144:4952-4961. View abstract.
  80. Madden K, Tanco K, Bruera E. Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction Between Methadone and Cannabidiol. Pediatrics. 2020;e20193256. View abstract.
  81. Hazekamp A. The trouble with CBD oil. Med Cannabis Cannabinoids. 2018 Jun;1:65-72.
  82. Xu DH, Cullen BD, Tang M, Fang Y. The Effectiveness of Topical Cannabidiol Oil in Symptomatic Relief of Peripheral Neuropathy of the Lower Extremities. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2019 Dec 1. View abstract.
  83. de Faria SM, de Morais Fabrício D, Tumas V, et al. Effects of acute cannabidiol administration on anxiety and tremors induced by a Simulated Public Speaking Test in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Psychopharmacol. 2020 Jan 7:269881119895536. View abstract.
  84. Nitecka-Buchta A, Nowak-Wachol A, Wachol K, et al. Myorelaxant Effect of Transdermal Cannabidiol Application in Patients with TMD: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial. J Clin Med. 2019 Nov 6;8. pii: E1886. View abstract.
  85. Masataka N. Anxiolytic Effects of Repeated Cannabidiol Treatment in Teenagers With Social Anxiety Disorders. Front Psychol. 2019 Nov 8;10:2466. View abstract.
  86. Appiah-Kusi E, Petros N, Wilson R, et al. Effects of short-term cannabidiol treatment on response to social stress in subjects at clinical high risk of developing psychosis. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2020 Jan 8. View abstract.
  87. Hussain SA, Dlugos DJ, Cilio MR, Parikh N, Oh A, Sankar R. Synthetic pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol for treatment of refractory infantile spasms: A multicenter phase-2 study. Epilepsy Behav. 2020 Jan;102:106826. View abstract.
  88. Klotz KA, Grob D, Hirsch M, Metternich B, Schulze-Bonhage A, Jacobs J. Efficacy and Tolerance of Synthetic Cannabidiol for Treatment of Drug Resistant Epilepsy. Front Neurol. 2019 Dec 10;10:1313. View abstract.
  89. “GW Pharmaceuticals plc and Its U.S. Subsidiary Greenwich Biosciences, Inc. Announce That EPIDIOLEX® (cannabidiol) Oral Solution Has Been Descheduled And Is No Longer A Controlled Substance.” GW Pharmaceuticals, 6 April 2020. http://ir.gwpharm.com/node/11356/pdf. Press release.
  90. Wiemer-Kruel A, Stiller B, Bast T. Cannabidiol Interacts Significantly with Everolimus-Report of a Patient with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Neuropediatrics. 2019. View abstract.
  91. FDA Consumer Updates: What You Should Know About Using Cannabis, Including CBD, When Pregnant or Breastfeeding. U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). October 2019. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-should-know-about-using-cannabis-including-cbd-when-pregnant-or-breastfeeding.
  92. Taylor L, Crockett J, Tayo B, Morrison G. A Phase 1, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial of the Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Cannabidiol (CBD) in Subjects With Mild to Severe Hepatic Impairment. J Clin Pharmacol. 2019;59:1110-1119. View abstract.
  93. Szaflarski JP, Hernando K, Bebin EM, et al. Higher cannabidiol plasma levels are associated with better seizure response following treatment with a pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol. Epilepsy Behav. 2019;95:131-136. View abstract.
  94. Pretzsch CM, Voinescu B, Mendez MA, et al. The effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on low-frequency activity and functional connectivity in the brain of adults with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). J Psychopharmacol. 2019:269881119858306. View abstract.
  95. Pretzsch CM, Freyberg J, Voinescu B, et al. Effects of cannabidiol on brain excitation and inhibition systems; a randomised placebo-controlled single dose trial during magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019;44:1398-1405. View abstract.
  96. Patrician A, Versic-Bratincevic M, Mijacika T, et al. Examination of a New Delivery Approach for Oral Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Pharmacokinetics Study. Adv Ther. 2019. View abstract.
  97. Martin RC, Gaston TE, Thompson M, et al. Cognitive functioning following long-term cannabidiol use in adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2019;97:105-110. View abstract.
  98. Leino AD, Emoto C, Fukuda T, Privitera M, Vinks AA, Alloway RR. Evidence of a clinically significant drug-drug interaction between cannabidiol and tacrolimus. Am J Transplant. 2019;19:2944-2948. View abstract.
  99. Laux LC, Bebin EM, Checketts D, et al. Long-term safety and efficacy of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome: Expanded access program results. Epilepsy Res. 2019;154:13-20. View abstract.
  100. Knaub K, Sartorius T, Dharsono T, Wacker R, Wilhelm M, Schön C. A Novel Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) Based on VESIsorb Formulation Technology Improving the Oral Bioavailability of Cannabidiol in Healthy Subjects. Molecules. 2019;24. pii: E2967. View abstract.
  101. Klotz KA, Hirsch M, Heers M, Schulze-Bonhage A, Jacobs J. Effects of cannabidiol on brivaracetam plasma levels. Epilepsia. 2019;60:e74-e77. View abstract.
  102. Heussler H, Cohen J, Silove N, et al. A phase 1/2, open-label assessment of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of transdermal cannabidiol (ZYN002) for the treatment of pediatric fragile X syndrome. J Neurodev Disord. 2019;11:16. View abstract.
  103. Couch DG, Cook H, Ortori C, Barrett D, Lund JN, O’Sullivan SE. Palmitoylethanolamide and Cannabidiol Prevent Inflammation-induced Hyperpermeability of the Human Gut In Vitro and In Vivo-A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Controlled Trial. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2019;25:1006-1018. View abstract.
  104. Birnbaum AK, Karanam A, Marino SE, et al. Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2019 Aug;60:1586-1592. View abstract.
  105. Arkell TR, Lintzeris N, Kevin RC, et al. Cannabidiol (CBD) content in vaporized cannabis does not prevent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced impairment of driving and cognition. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019;236:2713-2724. View abstract.
  106. Anderson LL, Absalom NL, Abelev SV, et al. Coadministered cannabidiol and clobazam: Preclinical evidence for both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. Epilepsia. 2019. View abstract.
  107. Product information for Marinol. AbbVie. North Chicago, IL 60064. August 2017. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/018651s029lbl.pdf.
  108. Epidiolex (cannabidiol) prescribing information. Greenwich Biosciences, Inc., Carlsbad, CA, 2019. Available at: https://www.epidiolex.com/sites/default/files/EPIDIOLEX_Full_Prescribing_Information.pdf (accessed 5/9/2019)
  109. Statement from FDA Commissioner Scot Gottlieb, M.D., on signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act and the agency’s regulation of products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/statement-fda-commissioner-scott-gottlieb-md-signing-agriculture-improvement-act-and-agencys. (Accessed May 7, 2019).
  110. Agriculture Improvement Act, S. 10113, 115th Cong. or S. 12619, 115th Cong. .
  111. Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement in Schedule V of Certain FDA-Approved Drugs Containing Cannabidiol; Corresponding Change to Permit Requirements. Final order. Fed Regist. 2018 Sep 28;83:48950-3. View abstract.
  112. Schoedel KA, Szeto I, Setnik B, et al. Abuse potential assessment of cannabidiol (CBD) in recreational polydrug users: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Nov;88:162-171. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.07.027. Epub 2018 Oct 2. View abstract.
  113. Devinsky O, Verducci C, Thiele EA, et al. Open-label use of highly purified CBD (Epidiolex®) in patients with CDKL5 deficiency disorder and Aicardi, Dup15q, and Doose syndromes. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Sep;86:131-137. Epub 2018 Jul 11. View abstract.
  114. Szaflarski JP, Bebin EM, Cutter G, DeWolfe J, et al. Cannabidiol improves frequency and severity of seizures and reduces adverse events in an open-label add-on prospective study. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Oct;87:131-136. Epub 2018 Aug 9. View abstract.
  115. Linares IM, Zuardi AW, Pereira LC, et al. Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test. Braz J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan-Feb;41:9-14. Epub 2018 Oct 11. View abstract.
  116. Poklis JL, Mulder HA, Peace MR. The unexpected identification of the cannabimimetic, 5F-ADB, and dextromethorphan in commercially available cannabidiol e-liquids. Forensic Sci Int. 2019 Jan;294:e25-e27. Epub 2018 Nov 1. View abstract.
  117. Hurd YL, Spriggs S, Alishayev J, et al. Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2019:appiajp201918101191. View abstract.
  118. Thiele EA, Marsh ED, French JA, et al. Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2018 Mar 17;391:1085-1096. View abstract.
  119. Devinsky O, Patel AD, Cross JH, et al. Effect of Cannabidiol on Drop Seizures in the Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 17;378:1888-1897. View abstract.
  120. Pavlovic R, Nenna G, Calvi L, et al. Quality Traits of “Cannabidiol Oils”: Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations. Molecules. 2018 May 20;23. pii: E1230. View abstract.
  121. Naftali T, Mechulam R, Marii A, et al. Low-dose cannabidiol is safe but not effective in the treatment of Crohn’s Disease, a randomized controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Jun;62:1615-20. View abstract.
  122. Kaplan EH, Offermann EA, Sievers JW, Comi AM. Cannabidiol treatment for refractory seizures in Sturge-Weber Syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2017 Jun;71:18-23.e2. View abstract.
  123. Yeshurun M, Shpilberg O, Herscovici C, et al. Cannabidiol for the prevention of graft-versus-host-disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: results of a phase II study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015 Oct;21:1770-5. View abstract.
  124. Geffrey AL, Pollack SF, Bruno PL, Thiele EA. Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2015 Aug;56:1246-51. View abstract.
  125. Devinsky O, Marsh E, Friedman D, et la. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Mar;15:270-8. View abstract.
  126. 97021 Jadoon KA, Ratcliffe SH, Barrett DA, et al. Efficacy and safety of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabivarin on glycemic and lipid parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study. Diabetes Care. 2016 Oct;39:1777-86. View abstract.
  127. Gofshteyn JS, Wilfong A, Devinsky O, et al. Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) in the acute and chronic phases. J Child Neurol. 2017 Jan;32:35-40. View abstract.
  128. Hess EJ, Moody KA, Geffrey AL, et al. Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex. Epilepsia. 2016 Oct;57:1617-24.View abstract.
  129. Gaston TE, Bebin EM, Cutter GR, Liu Y, Szaflarski JP; UAB CBD Program. Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia. 2017 Sep;58:1586-92. View abstract.
  130. Devinsky O, Cross JH, Laux L, et al. Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017 May 25;376:2011-2020. View abstract.
  131. Bonn-Miller MO, Loflin MJE, Thomas BF, Marcu JP, Hyke T, Vandrey R. Labeling accuracy of cannabidiol extracts sold online. JAMA 2017 Nov;318:1708-9. View abstract.
  132. Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, et al. The non-psychoactive cannabis-constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;97:9561-6. View abstract.
  133. Formukong EA, Evans AT, Evans FJ. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativa L. Inflammation 1988;12:361-71. View abstract.
  134. Valvassori SS, Elias G, de Souza B, et al. Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania. J Psychopharmacol 2011;25:274-80. View abstract.
  135. Esposito G, Scuderi C, Savani C, et al. Cannabidiol in vivo blunts beta-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1beta and iNOS expression. Br J Pharmacol 2007;151:1272-9. View abstract.
  136. Esposito G, De Filippis D, Maiuri MC, et al. Cannabidiol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide production in beta-amyloid stimulated PC12 neurons through p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB involvement. Neurosci Lett 2006;399(1-2):91-5. View abstract.
  137. Iuvone T, Esposito G, De Filippis D, et al. Cannabidiol: a promising new drug for neurodegenerative disorders? CNS Neurosci Ther 2009;15:65-75. View abstract.
  138. Bisogno T, Di Marzo Y. The role of the endocannabinoid system in Alzheimer’s disease: facts and hypotheses. Curr Pharm Des 2008;14:2299-3305. View abstract.
  139. Zuardi AW. Cannabidiol: from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2008;30:271-80. View abstract.
  140. Izzo AA, Borelli F, Capasso R, et al. Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2009;30:515-27. View abstract.
  141. Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 2011;51:1054-61. View abstract.
  142. Pickens JT. Sedative activity of cannabis in relation to its delta’-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. Br J Pharmacol 1981;72:649-56. View abstract.
  143. Monti JM. Hypnoticlike effects of cannabidiol in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1977;55:263-5. View abstract.
  144. Karler R, Turkanis SA. Subacute cannabinoid treatment: anticonvulsant activity and withdrawal excitability in mice. Br J Pharmacol 1980;68:479-84. View abstract.
  145. Karler R, Cely W, Turkanis SA. The anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol and cannabinol. Life Sci 1973;13:1527-31. View abstract.
  146. Consroe PF, Wokin AL. Anticonvulsant interaction of cannabidiol and ethosuximide in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 1977;29:500-1. View abstract.
  147. Consroe P, Wolkin A. Cannabidiol-antiepilpetic drug comparisons and interactions in experimentally induced seizures in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1977;201:26-32. View abstract.
  148. Carlini EA, Leite JR, Tannhauser M, Berardi AC. Letter: Cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extract protect mice and rats against convulsive agents. J Pharm Pharmacol 1973;25:664-5. View abstract.
  149. Cryan JF, Markou A, Lucki I. Assessing antidepressant activity in rodents: recent developments and future needs. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2002;23:238-45. View abstract.
  150. El-Alfy AT, Ivey K, Robinson K, et al. Antidepressant-like effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2010;95:434-42. View abstract.
  151. Resstel LB, Tavares RF, Lisboa SF, et al. 5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioral and cardiovascular responses to acute stress in rats. Br J Pharmacol 2009;156:181-8. View abstract.
  152. Granjeiro EM, Gomes FV, Guimaraes FS, et al. Effects of intracisternal administration of cannabidiol on the cardiovascular and behavioral responses to acute restraint stress. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2011;99:743-8. View abstract.
  153. Murillo-Rodriguez E, Millan-Aldaco D, Palomero-Rivero M, et al. Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats. FEBS Lett 2006;580:4337-45. View abstract.
  154. De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, et al. Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PLoS One 2011;6:e28159. View abstract.
  155. Dalton WS, Martz R, Lemberger L, et al. Influence of cannabidiol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1976;19:300-9. View abstract.
  156. Guimaraes VM, Zuardi AW, Del Bel EA, Guimaraes FS. Cannabidiol increases Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens but not in the dorsal striatum. Life Sci 2004;75:633-8. View abstract.
  157. Moreira FA, Guimaraes FS. Cannabidiol inhibits the hyperlocomotion induced by psychomimetic drugs in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2005;512(2-3):199-205. View abstract.
  158. Long LE, Chesworth R, Huang XF, et al. A behavioral comparison of acute and chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in C57BL/6JArc mice. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2010;13:861-76. View abstract.
  159. Zuardi AW, Rodriguez JA, Cunha JM. Effects of cannabidiol in animal models predictive of antipsychotic activity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1991;104:260-4. View abstract.
  160. Malone DT, Jongejan D, Taylor DA. Cannabidiol reverses the reduction in social interaction produced by low dose Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2009;93:91-6. View abstract.
  161. Schubart CD, Sommer IE, Fusar-Poli P, et al. Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2014;24:51-64. View abstract.
  162. Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, et al. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2012;367:3364-78. View abstract.
  163. Fusar-Poli P, Allen P, Bhattacharyya S, et al. Modulation of effective connectivity during emotional processing by Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2010;13:421-32. View abstract.
  164. Casarotto PC, Gomes FV, Resstel LB, Guimaraes FS. Cannabidiol inhibitory effect on marble-burying behavior: involvement of CB1 receptors. Behav Pharmacol 2010;21:353-8. View abstract.
  165. Uribe-Marino A, Francisco A, Castiblanco-Urbina MA, et al. Anti-aversive effects of cannabidiol on innate fear-induced behaviors evoked by an ethological model of panic attacks based on a prey vs the wild snake Epicrates cenchria crassus confrontation paradigm. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012;37:412-21. View abstract.
  166. Campos AC, Guimaraes FS. Activation of 5HT1A receptors mediates the anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol in a PTSD model. Behav Pharmacol 2009;20:S54.
  167. Resstel LB, Joca SR, Moreira FA, et al. Effects of cannabidiol and diazepam on behavioral and cardiovascular responses induced by contextual conditioned fear in rats. Behav Brain Res 2006;172:294-8. View abstract.
  168. Moreira FA, Aguiar DC, Guimaraes FS. Anxiolytic-like effect of cannabidiol in the rat Vogel conflict test. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006;30:1466-71. View abstract.
  169. Onaivi ES, Green MR, Martin BR. Pharmacological characterization of cannabinoids in the elevated plus maze. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990;253:1002-9. View abstract.
  170. Guimaraes FS, Chairetti TM, Graeff FG, Zuardi AW. Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1990;100:558-9. View abstract.
  171. Magen I, Avraham Y, Ackerman Z, et al. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation. J Hepatol 2009;51:528-34. View abstract.
  172. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Batkai S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:2115-25. View abstract.
  173. El-Remessy AB, Al-Shabrawey M, Khalifa Y, et al. Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes. Am J Pathol 2006;168:235-44. View abstract.
  174. Rajesh M, Mukhopadhyay P, Batkai S, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induces endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007;293:H610-H619. View abstract.
  175. Toth CC, Jedrzejewski NM, Ellis CL, Frey WH. Cannabinoid-mediated modulation of neuropathic pain and microglial accumulation in a model of murine type 1 diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Mol Pain 2010;6:16. View abstract.
  176. Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, et al. Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. J Mol Med (Berl) 2012;90:925-34. View abstract.
  177. Lee CY, Wey SP, Liao MH, et al. A comparative study on cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells. Int Immunopharmacol 2008;8:732-40. View abstract.
  178. Massi P, Valenti M, Vaccani A, et al. 5-Lipoxygenase and anandamide hydrolase (FAAH) mediate the antitumor activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. J Neurochem 2008;104:1091-100. View abstract.
  179. Valenti M, Massi P, Bolognini D, et al. Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid compound inhibits human glioma cell migration and invasiveness. 34th National Congress of the Italian Society of Pharmacology 2009.
  180. Torres S, Lorente M, Rodriguez-Fornes F, et al. A combined preclinical therapy of cannabinoids and temozolomide against glioma. Mol Cancer Ther 2011;10:90-103. View abstract.
  181. Jacobsson SO, Rongard E, Stridh M, et al. Serum-dependent effects of tamoxifen and cannabinoids upon C6 glioma cell viability. Biochem Pharmacol 2000;60:1807-13. View abstract.
  182. Shrivastava A, Kuzontkoski PM, Groopman JE, Prasad A. Cannabidiol induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells by coordinating the cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy. Mol Cancer Ther 2011;10:1161-72. View abstract.
  183. McAllister SD, Murase R, Christian RT, et al. Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011;129:37-47. View abstract.
  184. McAllister SD, Christian RT, Horowitz MP, et al. Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2007;6:2921-7. View abstract.
  185. Ligresti A, Moriello AS, Starowicz K, et al. Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;318:1375-87. View abstract.
  186. Massi P, Solinas M, Cinquina V, Parolaro D. Cannabidiol as a potential anticancer drug. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013;75:303-12. View abstract.
  187. Schubart CD, Sommer IE, van Gastel WA, et al. Cannabis with high cannabidiol content is associated with fewer psychotic experiences. Schizophr Res 2011;130(1-3):216-21. View abstract.
  188. Englund A, Morrison PD, Nottage J, et al. Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment. J Psychopharmacol 2013;27:19-27. View abstract.
  189. Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, et al. Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia 2014;55:791-802. View abstract.
  190. Serpell MG, Notcutt W, Collin C. Sativex long-term use: an open-label trial in patients with spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2013;260:285-95. View abstract.
  191. Notcutt W, Langford R, Davies P, et al. A placebo-controlled, parallel group, randomized withdrawal study of subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis who are receiving long-term Sativex (nabiximols). Mult Scler 2012;18:219-28. View abstract.
  192. Brady CM, DasGupta R, Dalton C, et al. An open-label study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfuntion in advanced multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2004;10:425-33. View abstract.
  193. Kavia RB, De Ridder D, Constantinescu CS, et al. Randomized controlled trial of Sativex to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2010;16:1349-59. View abstract.
  194. Wade DT, Makela PM, House H, et al. Long-term use of a cannabis-based treatment in spasticity and other symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2006;12:639-45. View abstract.
  195. Novotna A, Mares J, Ratcliffe S, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, enriched-design study of nabiximols* (Sativex), as add-on therapy, in subjects with refractory spasticity cause by multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 2011;18:1122-31. View abstract.
  196. Overview. GW Pharmaceuticals Web site. Available at: http://www.gwpharm.com/about-us-overview.aspx. Accessed: May 31, 2015.
  197. Cannabidiol Now Showing Up In Dietary Supplements. Natural Medicines Web site. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/news/news-items/2015/march/cannabidiol-now-showing-up-in-dietary-supplements.aspx. (Accessed May 31, 2015).
  198. Zuardi AW, Cosme RA, Graeff FG, Guimaraes FS. Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety. J Psychopharmacol 1993;7(1 Suppl):82-8. View abstract.
  199. Leighty EG, Fentiman AF Jr, Foltz RL. Long-retained metabolites of delta9- and delta8-tetrahydrocannabinols identified as novel fatty acid conjugates. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1976;14:13-28. View abstract.
  200. Samara E, Bialer M, Mechoulam R. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs. Drug Metab Dispos 1988;16:469-72. View abstract.
  201. Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR. Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Int J Neurosci 1986;30:277-82. View abstract.
  202. Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, et al. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol 2011;25:121-30. View abstract.
  203. Bornheim LM, Everhart ET, Li J, Correia MA. Characterization of cannabidiol-mediated cytochrome P450 inactivation. Biochem Pharmacol 1993;45:1323-31. View abstract.
  204. Harvey DJ. Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation of the cannabinoids. Marijuana and Medicine. 1999;91-103.
  205. Yamaori S, Ebisawa J, Okushima Y, et al. Potent inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A isoforms by cannabidiol: role of phenolic hydroxyl groups in the resorcinol moiety. Life Sci 2011;88(15-16):730-6. View abstract.
  206. Yamaori S, Okamoto Y, Yamamoto I, Watanabe K. Cannabidiol, a major phytocannabinoid, as a potent atypical inhibitor for CYP2D6. Drug Metab Dispos 2011;39:2049-56. View abstract.
  207. Yamaori S, Maeda C, Yamamoto I, Watanabe K. Differential inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2A6 and 2B6 by major phytocannabinoids. Forensic Toxicol 2011;29:117-24.
  208. Yamaori S, Kushihara M, Yamamoto I, Watanabe K. Characterization of major phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol and cannabinol, as isoform-selective potent inhibitors of human CYP1 enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol 2010;79:1691-8. View abstract.
  209. Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Hallak JE, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. J Psychopharmacol 2009;23:979-83. View abstract.
  210. Morgan CJ, Das RK, Joye A, et al. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings. Addict Behav 2013;38:2433-6. View abstract.
  211. Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delat9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol 2008;153:199-215. View abstract.
  212. Leweke FM, Kranaster L, Pahlisch F, et al. The efficacy of cannabidiol in the treatment of schizophrenia – a translational approach. Schizophr Bull 2011;37(Suppl 1):313.
  213. Leweke FM, Piomelli D, Pahlisch F, et al. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry 2012;2:e94. View abstract.
  214. Carroll CB, Bain PG, Teare L, et al. Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study. Neurology 2004;63:1245-50. View abstract.
  215. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011;36:1219-26. View abstract.
  216. Zuardi AW, Crippa JA, Hallak JE, et al. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug. Braz J Med Biol Res 2006;39:421-9. View abstract.
  217. Yadav V, Bever C Jr, Bowen J, et al. Summary of evidence-based guideline: complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2014;82:1083-92. View abstract.
  218. Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Marijuana ’90 International Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids 1990;2:5.
  219. Srivastava, M. D., Srivastava, B. I., and Brouhard, B. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alter cytokine production by human immune cells. Immunopharmacology 1998;40:179-185. View abstract.
  220. Cunha, J. M., Carlini, E. A., Pereira, A. E., Ramos, O. L., Pimentel, C., Gagliardi, R., Sanvito, W. L., Lander, N., and Mechoulam, R. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology 1980;21:175-185. View abstract.
  221. Carlini EA, Cunha JM. Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. J Clin Pharmacol 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):417S-27S. View abstract.
  222. Zuardi, A. W., Shirakawa, I., Finkelfarb, E., and Karniol, I. G. Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1982;76:245-250. View abstract.
  223. Ames, F. R. and Cridland, S. Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol. S.Afr.Med.J. 1-4-1986;69:14. View abstract.
  224. Ohlsson, A., Lindgren, J. E., Andersson, S., Agurell, S., Gillespie, H., and Hollister, L. E. Single-dose kinetics of deuterium-labelled cannabidiol in man after smoking and intravenous administration. Biomed.Environ Mass Spectrom. 1986;13:77-83. View abstract.
  225. Wade, D. T., Collin, C., Stott, C., and Duncombe, P. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Sativex (nabiximols), on spasticity in people with multiple sclerosis. Mult.Scler. 2010;16:707-714. View abstract.
  226. Collin, C., Ehler, E., Waberzinek, G., Alsindi, Z., Davies, P., Powell, K., Notcutt, W., O’Leary, C., Ratcliffe, S., Novakova, I., Zapletalova, O., Pikova, J., and Ambler, Z. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of Sativex, in subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Neurol.Res. 2010;32:451-459. View abstract.
  227. Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Martin-Santos, R., Bhattacharyya, S., Atakan, Z., McGuire, P., and Fusar-Poli, P. Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:515-523. View abstract.
  228. Consroe, P., Laguna, J., Allender, J., Snider, S., Stern, L., Sandyk, R., Kennedy, K., and Schram, K. Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington’s disease. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 1991;40:701-708. View abstract.
  229. Harvey, D. J., Samara, E., and Mechoulam, R. Comparative metabolism of cannabidiol in dog, rat and man. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 1991;40:523-532. View abstract.
  230. Collin, C., Davies, P., Mutiboko, I. K., and Ratcliffe, S. Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur.J.Neurol. 2007;14:290-296. View abstract.
  231. Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Bianchessi, S., Costa, B., Macchi, P., and Parolaro, D. The non-psychoactive cannabidiol triggers caspase activation and oxidative stress in human glioma cells. Cell Mol.Life Sci. 2006;63:2057-2066. View abstract.
  232. Weiss, L., Zeira, M., Reich, S., Har-Noy, M., Mechoulam, R., Slavin, S., and Gallily, R. Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Autoimmunity 2006;39:143-151. View abstract.
  233. Watzl, B., Scuderi, P., and Watson, R. R. Marijuana components stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cell secretion of interferon-gamma and suppress interleukin-1 alpha in vitro. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1991;13:1091-1097. View abstract.
  234. Consroe, P., Kennedy, K., and Schram, K. Assay of plasma cannabidiol by capillary gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectroscopy following high-dose repeated daily oral administration in humans. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 1991;40:517-522. View abstract.
  235. Barnes, M. P. Sativex: clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain. Expert.Opin.Pharmacother. 2006;7:607-615. View abstract.
  236. Wade, D. T., Makela, P., Robson, P., House, H., and Bateman, C. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Mult.Scler. 2004;10:434-441. View abstract.
  237. Iuvone, T., Esposito, G., Esposito, R., Santamaria, R., Di Rosa, M., and Izzo, A. A. Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. J Neurochem. 2004;89:134-141. View abstract.
  238. Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S., Colombo, A., Abbracchio, M. P., and Parolaro, D. Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines. J Pharmacol Exp.Ther. 2004;308:838-845. View abstract.
  239. Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Garrido, G. E., Wichert-Ana, L., Guarnieri, R., Ferrari, L., Azevedo-Marques, P. M., Hallak, J. E., McGuire, P. K., and Filho, Busatto G. Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on regional cerebral blood flow. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004;29:417-426. View abstract.
  240. Wade, D. T., Robson, P., House, H., Makela, P., and Aram, J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clin.Rehabil. 2003;17:21-29. View abstract.
  241. Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.
See also  is cbd oil good for joint stiffness

Natural Medicines disclaims any responsibility related to medical consequences of using any medical product. Effort is made to ensure that the information contained in this monograph is accurate at the time it was published. Consumers and medical professionals who consult this monograph are cautioned that any medical or product related decision is the sole responsibility of the consumer and/or the health care professional. A legal License Agreement sets limitations on downloading, storing, or printing content from this Database. Except for any possible exceptions written into your License Agreement, no reproduction of this monograph or any content from this Database is permitted without written permission from the publisher. Unlawful to download, store, or distribute content from this site.

© 2022 TRC is a registered trademark of Therapeutic Research Center. TRC and all associated names and service marks including TRC are restricted and reserved for Therapeutic Research Center use.