cbd oil for pain february 6 2022

6 Best CBG Oils: Reviews & Guide (February 2022)

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Like CBD, cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid with many potential health benefits.

Given its novelty, finding quality CBG oil and other products containing CBG can be difficult. Some might contain less CBG than advertised, while others simply cost too much.

To make your search easier, we compared 15 CBG products from leading brands based on third-party lab test results, hemp quality, potency, price, and other criteria.

Read on for our reviews of the best CBG oils and an evidence-based guide to this minor cannabinoid.

Table of Contents

Best CBG Oils and Capsules

  1. Best Overall: Lazarus Naturals CBG Oil | Full review
  2. Best Potency: NuLeaf Naturals CBG Oil | Full review
  3. Best Hemp Source: Upstate Elevator CBG Tincture | Full review
  4. Best THC-Free: Medterra CBG Tincture | Full review
  5. Best for Overall Health: CBDfx Wellness Tincture | Full review
  6. Best CBGa Oil: Extract Labs Immune Support CBGa CBDa Tincture | Full review
  7. Best Capsules: Extract Labs CBG Capsules | Full review

CBD Terminology

  • Terpenes: aromatic plant compounds with a wide variety of beneficial properties (1).
  • Minor cannabinoids: CBN, CBG, and other beneficial cannabinoids found in smaller amounts than CBD. For hemp, THC also counts as a minor cannabinoid.
  • Hemp: non-intoxicating cannabis variety with high CBD and low THC levels (less than 0.3%).
  • Full-spectrum: whole-plant hemp extract containing multiple cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. This form of CBD is about 4 times more potent than pure CBD (2).
  • Broad-spectrum: whole-plant hemp extract similar to full-spectrum CBD, but with THC removed (may contain trace amounts).
  • CBD isolate: pure CBD with all other hemp compounds removed.

Lazarus Naturals CBD/CBG Oil Tincture (Best Overall)

CBD/CBG Potency 50 mg/ml
Volume 15-60 ml
Total CBD+CBG 750-3000 mg
Value (Cost per mg) $0.02-0.03
Type Full-spectrum
Third-Party Tests View report

Pros:

  • Exceptionally low price
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • USDA-certified organic Oregon hemp

Cons:

  • No flavored options

The CBD/CBG oil from Lazarus Naturals is the best CBG tincture we’ve come across. It provides a 1:1 ratio of CBD to CBG, with 750-3000 mg of cannabinoids per bottle.

This tincture is full-spectrum, USDA-certified organic, high-potency (50 mg CBG/CBD per ml), and comes at the exceptionally low price of $0.02-0.03 per mg. There’s also free shipping on orders over $50.

If you want to save big on high-quality CBG oil, this is your best option. Made from USDA-certified organic hemp grown by Lazarus in Oregon, this oil comes with full third-party test results.

Lazarus Naturals is an employee-owned CBD company known for offering exceptional products at some of the lowest prices in the industry. It even has an assistance program.

NuLeaf Naturals Full Spectrum CBG Oil (Best Potency)

CBG Potency 60 mg/ml
Volume 30 ml
Total CBD+CBG 300-1800 mg
Value (Cost per mg) $0.10-0.13
Type Full-spectrum
Third-Party Tests View report

Use coupon code CBDTHINKER for 20% off

Pros:

  • High CBG potency
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Free shipping

Cons:

  • Not as cheap as some other brands

Most of the CBG oils you’ll find contain equal or higher amounts of CBD. If you’re looking for a potent product that’s rich in CBG, NuLeaf Naturals is the best option.

Established in 2014, NuLeaf Naturals is one of the most trusted American CBD brands. Its products are made from organic Colorado hemp and come with comprehensive third-party lab test results.

Its full-spectrum oil provides 60 mg of CBG per ml, one of the highest potencies you’ll find. At the same time, it still contains smaller amounts of CBD, THC, minor cannabinoids, and terpenes to make the most of the entourage effect (1).

You can choose from 5, 15, and 30 ml bottles with a total of 300-1800 mg of CBG at a cost of $0.10-0.13 per milligram.

Upstate Elevator Supply Co. CBG Tincture (Best Hemp Source)

CBD/CBG Potency 50 mg/ml
Volume 30-60 ml
Total CBD+CBG 1500–3000 mg
Cost per mg CBD+CBG $0.03
Type Full-spectrum
Flavors Unflavored
Third-Party Test View report

Use coupon code cbdthinker10 for 10% off

Pros:

  • Low price
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • High-quality, USDA-certified organic Vermont hemp

Cons:

  • No flavored options

If you’re looking for CBG oil made from the highest quality hemp, we recommend Upstate Elevator Supply Co.

Its full-spectrum CBD+CBG tincture is made from a proprietary strain of hemp bred specifically for Vermont. The plants are certified organic by the USDA and the state’s organic farmers organization.

This full-spectrum oil combines a 1:1 ratio of CBD and CBG, with 50 mg of CBD+CBG per ml and a total of 1500-3000 mg of cannabinoids per bottle. It costs only $0.03 per mg, which is one of the lowest prices you’ll find.

Upstate Elevator Supply Co. is a top-notch CBD company based in Vermont.

Medterra CBG + CBD Tincture (Best THC-Free)

CBD/CBG Potency 33-67 mg/ml
Volume 30 ml
Total CBD+CBG 1000-2000 mg
Value (Cost per mg) $0.07-0.08
Type Broad-spectrum
Third-Party Tests View report

Use coupon code OFFER15 for 15% off

Pros:

  • US Hemp Authority Certification
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Zero THC

Cons:

  • Lacks terpenes

We recommend Medterra’s CBG + CBD tincture if you need to avoid THC. This citrus-flavored oil provides 1000-2000 mg of pure CBG and CBD without any other cannabinoids.

You can choose the medium strength (33 mg/ml) or high-strength (66 mg/ml) option.

Derived from organic Kentucky hemp, this CBG oil is comprehensively tested for potency and contaminants. It costs $0.07-0.08 per mg of cannabinoids, which is slightly cheaper than average for CBG tinctures.

Medterra is a top-tier CBD brand out of California. Its products are certified by the US Hemp Authority, highlighting the company’s commitment to strict hemp production standards.

CBDfx CBD + CBG Wellness Tincture (Best for Overall Health)

CBD/CBG Potency 25-150 mg/ml
Volume 30-60 ml
Total CBD+CBG 750-9000 mg
Value (Cost per mg) $0.02-0.05
Type Broad-spectrum
Third-Party Tests View report

Use coupon code FXSAVINGS for 15% off

Pros:

  • Low prices
  • Comprehensive third-party testing
  • Five strength options

Cons:

  • Smaller CBG concentration (relative to CBD)
  • Not full-spectrum

California’s CBDfx is one of the most popular brands on the market. It uses organic hemp grown in Kentucky to make its products and provides comprehensive third-party lab test reports.

If you want to use CBG oil for your overall health, we recommend CBDfx’s wellness tincture.

It combines a 2:1 ratio of pure CBD and CBG, alongside a blend of terpenes and two other ingredients with a wide range of potential health benefits: curcumin and coenzyme Q10 (3, 4).

You can choose 30 or 60 ml bottles available in five strengths ranging from 500 to 6000 mg of CBD and 250 to 3000 mg of CBG. Depending on the strength, you’ll end up paying anywhere from $0.02 to 0.05 per mg of cannabinoids, which is well below the average price.

Extract Labs CBGa + CBDa Tincture (Best CBGa Oil)

CBDa/CBGa Potency 67 mg/ml
Volume 30 ml
Total CBDa+CBGa 2000 mg
Cost per mg $0.06
Type Full-spectrum
Flavors Unflavored
Third-Party Tests View report

Use coupon code CBDTHINKER for 15% off

Pros:

  • Full-spectrum formula high in CBGa, CBG, CBDa, and CBD
  • One of the only CBGa oils on the market

Cons:

  • Only one potency

This unique full-spectrum oil from Extract Labs provides the “raw” cannabinoids CBGa and CBDa and their “activated” forms CBG and CBD at a 1:1 ratio. You get 500 mg of each cannabinoid, for a total of 2000 mg or 67 mg per ml.

CBGa is the first cannabinoid produced by cannabis plants and gives rise to most other cannabinoids, including CBG. It was highlighted by a January 2022 study that found that CBGa and CBDa blocked the COVID-19 virus from entering human cells.

This CBGa oil costs $0.06 per mg of cannabinoids, a low price for such a rare formula.

Founded in 2016 by army veteran Craig Henderson, Extract Labs is a reputable brand out of Colorado. Its products are sourced from local organic hemp and go through complete in-house and third-party testing.

Extract Labs Daily Support CBG Capsules (Best Capsules)

CBD/CBG Potency 66 mg
Capsule Count 30
Total CBD+CBG 2000 mg
Value (Cost per mg) $0.05
Type Full-spectrum
Third-Party Tests View report

Use coupon code CBDTHINKER for 15% off

Pros:

  • High potency
  • Full-spectrum formula
  • Comprehensive third-party testing

Cons:

  • Not vegan-friendly (contain gelatin)

If you’d rather take CBG in the form of capsules, we recommend Extract Labs. Each full-spectrum capsule contains a potent 1:1 combination of CBD and CBG (33 mg each).

They cost only $0.05 per mg of cannabinoids so you’re getting a great deal. Made from organic hemp cultivated in Colorado, these softgels come with complete third-party lab test results.

What is CBG?

Cannabigerol (CBG) is a cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant. It’s non-intoxicating just like CBD, so it can’t get you high. CBG is considered a minor cannabinoid because most cannabis plants contain less than 1% of it.

CBG comes from cannabigerolic acid (CBGa). CBGa is considered the “mother of all cannabinoids” because it’s one of the first cannabinoids made inside the cannabis plant and turns into THCa, CBDa, and other cannabinoid acids (5). Typically, only a small amount of CBGa turns into CBG.

However, there are some cannabis strains bred for high CBG levels. It’s also possible to get more CBG by harvesting and extracting plants at the optimal time.

What is CBG Oil?

CBG oil is a CBG-rich version of CBD oil. It can contain pure CBG, a specific mix or ratio of CBG and CBD, or CBG-rich full-spectrum hemp extract.

The CBG is dissolved in MCT oil or another carrier oil to improve its absorption and taken under the tongue like a regular CBD tincture.

Most people use CBG oil to boost their mood, relieve anxiety and pain, and support overall well-being.

CBG Oil Benefits

CBG has many potential health benefits. Although it’s seen less research than CBD, early studies have shown promising results:

  • A 2016 study in rats found that CBG can stimulate appetite (6)
  • A 2013 study in mice reported that CBG improved inflammatory bowel disease (7)
  • According to a 2017 review paper, CBG may have anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, antibacterial, antidepressant, and anticancer properties (8)
  • Two animal studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) found that CBG and its derivatives improved neuroinflammation (9 ,10)
  • A 2015 study reported that CBG protected neurons from damage in mice with Huntington’s disease (11)
  • A 2019 petri dish study found that the combination of CBD and CBG reduced neuroinflammation better than either cannabinoid alone (12 )
  • A 2010 study found that CBG strongly activates a2 adrenergic receptors, suggesting that it may have pain-relieving, sedative, and antihypertensive effects (13)
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Additionally, a 2021 survey of 121 cannabis users who smoked CBG-dominant cannabis strains found that it was most commonly used to treat anxiety (51.2% of users), chronic pain (40.9%), depression (33.1%), and insomnia or poor sleep (30.7%).

Most participants said their symptoms were “very much improved” or “much improved” with CBG-rich cannabis. Additionally, 73.9% said CBG-rich cannabis was better than prescription medicine for pain, 80% for depression, 73% for insomnia, and 78.3% for anxiety (14).

According to leading cannabis researcher Dr. Ethan Russo, CBG also has “a strong anti-anxiety effect.”

While this list of CBG’s potential benefits is impressive, more high-quality human research is needed to fully understand its therapeutic prospects.

CBG vs CBD

Both CBG and CBD are non-intoxicating cannabinoids. They have some similar effects, like anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and pain-relieving properties (15). However, CBG also has some distinct effects.

For example, whereas CBD appears to slightly suppress appetite, CBG may have the opposite effect (16). Another interesting finding is that CBG blocks the serotonin (5HT1A) receptor, whereas CBD activates it (13, 17).

CBG Oil Dosage

The appropriate CBG oil dosage depends on your body weight, genetics, the benefits you’re looking for, the formula you’re using, and other factors. In short, there isn’t a one-size-fits-all dosage.

Health experts recommend the “start low and go slow” approach to cannabinoids (18). Start with a 5-10 mg dose of CBG oil and wait two hours to see the effects. If it’s not enough, try a bigger dose next time. Repeat this method until you find the dosage that gives you the desired effects.

CBG Oil Safety & Side Effects

Although research are lacking, studies suggests that CBG may have some side effects and interactions. For example, it might interfere with drugs that act on serotonin, such as SSRI antidepressants (10).

The most common side effects reported in a survey of CBG-rich cannabis users were dry mouth, sleepiness, increased appetite, and dry eyes (14). But all of these side effects can’t be attributed to CBG alone, since cannabis contains many other cannabinoids and terpenes.

It’s best to talk with your doctor before taking CBG oil products, especially if you’re on any prescription medications.

Choosing the Best CBG Oil

We consider several factors to find high-quality CBG oils:

  • Third-party testing (to verify the CBG content and lack of contaminants)
  • Type of CBG (to suit your needs)
  • Product potency (to get the best effects)
  • Hempsource (to get a high-quality product)
  • Company reputation (to find a trustworthy brand)
  • Price (to get a good deal)

Read on for a detailed explanation of why these criteria matter and how to use them.

Look for Third-Party Tested Brands

You should only buy from brands that have their products tested by an independent lab. Potency tests verify that you’re getting as much CBG and other cannabinoids as you should.

Meanwhile, contaminant tests check for pesticides, heavy metals, residual solvents, and other harmful substances.

Look for brands that provide complete third-party potency and contaminant test results. We also recommend checking the test documents yourself to make sure your CBG oil contains the right amount of CBG.

Type of CBG Oil

There are three types of CBG oil:

  • CBG isolate oil, which contains only pure CBG and no other active ingredients.
  • A mixed product that contains a specific ratio of pure CBG and CBD isolate.
  • Full-spectrum CBG oil, which contains a certain amount of CBG alongside CBD and other hemp cannabinoids and terpenes.

If you’re looking for the greatest effects, we recommend full-spectrum CBG oil because it maximizes the entourage effect synergy between cannabinoids and terpenes (1).

But if you want to avoid THC, go with CBG isolate oil or a mixed CBG/CBD product with zero THC.

Product Potency

Potency is how many milligrams (mg) of cannabinoids are in a milliliter (ml) of oil. The higher the number, the stronger the product. For CBG oil, this number will either be the amount of pure CBG or the combination of CBG, CBD, and potentially other cannabinoids.

For example, an oil providing 25 mg of CBD and 25 mg of CBG per ml has a combined potency of 50 mg/ml.

We generally recommend high-potency (40+ mg/ml) CBG products because they’re convenient for both new and experienced users.

Advanced users need stronger products to meet their dosage requirements, while beginners can take fewer drops to feel an effect. So try to look for CBG oil with a potency of 40 mg/ml or higher.

Check the Hemp Source

Since CBG is derived from hemp, the way it’s grown has a big impact on product quality.

Look for companies that use organic hemp and clearly tell you where and how it’s grown. The best hemp sources in the US include Colorado, Kentucky, and Oregon. European countries like Denmark and the Netherlands are also known for their great hemp quality.

It’s even better if the company grows and extracts its own hemp or has USDA organic certification.

Company Reputation

When compiling our list of the best products, we look for established brands with positive customer reviews to make sure you’re getting a high-quality product.

We also consider the company’s transparency, which includes revealing its hemp source, third-party test results, and other information that shows trustworthiness.

Price

We look for high-quality CBG oils at a reasonable price. We also help you compare the prices and value of products by listing the price per milligram (mg) of cannabinoids. The average price for CBG oil is about $0.12 per mg.

CBG FAQs

Is CBG better than CBD?

CBG may be more suitable than CBD for some uses, such as relieving pain or improving your mood. However, it’s far too early to say anything conclusive as more research is needed.

How do you take CBG oil?

You can take CBG oil the same way as a regular CBD tincture. Fill the dropper, place the desired number of drops under your tongue, and hold for at least a minute before swallowing.

Does CBG oil help with pain?

Early research suggests that CBG may have pain-relieving effects (8). However, more studies are needed.

Is CBG legal?

Like all hemp-derived cannabinoids, CBG is completely legal.

Where can I buy CBG oil?

You can buy CBG oil in physical stores and online. We recommend the online option because it’s much easier to find high-quality, third-party tested products at affordable prices.

References

Gleb is a freelance writer from Vancouver, Canada specializing in CBD and cannabis. He’s read thousands of studies on CBD and other supplements, helping him translate complex science into plain language. Gleb has tried and reviewed dozens of CBD brands and products, written third-party testing reports, and knows the CBD industry inside and out. When not writing, he likes to kickbox, travel, and tell everyone how awesome intermittent fasting is.

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Cannabis against chronic musculoskeletal pain: a scoping review on users and their perceptions

Chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) may lead to reduced physical function and is the most common cause of chronic non-cancer pain. Currently, the pharmacotherapeutic options against CMP are limited and frequent.

Authors: Daniela Furrer, Edeltraut Kröger, Martine Marcotte, Nathalie Jauvin, Richard Bélanger, Mark Ware, Guillaume Foldes-Busque, Michèle Aubin, Pierre Pluye and Clermont E. Dionne

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :41

Content type: Review

Published on: 4 September 2021

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Evaluation of thermo-chemical conversion temperatures of cannabinoid acids in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) biomass by pressurized liquid extraction

Cannabinoids are increasingly becoming compounds of medical interest. However, cannabis plants only produce carboxylated cannabinoids. In order to access the purported medical benefits of these compounds, the .

Authors: Kenneth J. Olejar and Chad A. Kinney

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :40

Content type: Technical note

Published on: 31 August 2021

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Reasons for individual and concurrent use of vaped nicotine and cannabis: their similarities, differences, and association with product use

Understanding similarities, differences, and associations between reasons people vape nicotine and cannabis may be important for identifying underlying contributors to their co-use.

Authors: Danielle M. Smith, Lynn Kozlowski, Richard J. O’Connor, Andrew Hyland and R. Lorraine Collins

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :39

Content type: Original research

Published on: 27 August 2021

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Cannabis sativa and/or melatonin do not alter brain lipid but alter oxidative mechanisms in female rats

Lipid profile and redox status play a role in brain (dys)functions. Cannabinoid and melatonergic systems operate in the brain and contribute to brain (patho)physiology, but their roles in the modulation of bra.

Authors: Halimat Amin Abdulrahim, Isiaka Abdullateef Alagbonsi, Oluwasola Amuda, Noah Adavize Omeiza, Abdul-Rahuf Aderemi Feyitimi and Luqman Aribidesi Olayaki

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :38

Content type: Original research

Published on: 19 August 2021

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Interests and concerns regarding medical marijuana among chronic pain patients in Ohio: an online survey

Since the legalization of medical marijuana (MMJ) in Ohio in 2018, many chronic pain (CP) patients have become interested in it as an alternative or adjunct to prescription opioids. This has not only created a.

Authors: Daniel Adams, Nana Ama Ofei-Tenkorang, Patrick Connell, Alexa Owens, Aaron Gothard, Dmitri Souza and Samer Narouze

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :37

Content type: Original research

Published on: 16 August 2021

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Cannabis for pain: a cross-sectional survey of the patient information quality on the Internet

Cannabis has increasingly become an alternative treatment for chronic pain, however, there is evidence of concomitant negative health effects with its long-term usage. Patients contemplating cannabis use for p.

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Authors: Jeremy Y. Ng, Darragh A. Dzisiak and Jessica B. Saini

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :36

Content type: Original research

Published on: 16 August 2021

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A narrative review on environmental impacts of cannabis cultivation

Interest in growing cannabis for medical and recreational purposes is increasing worldwide. This study reviews the environmental impacts of cannabis cultivation. Results show that both indoor and outdoor canna.

Authors: Zhonghua Zheng, Kelsey Fiddes and Liangcheng Yang

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :35

Content type: Review

Published on: 6 August 2021

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The impact of non-medical cannabis legalization and other exposures on retention in longitudinal cannabis research: a survival analysis of a prospective study of Canadian medical cannabis patients

Despite repeated calls by medical associations to gather evidence on the harms and benefits of cannabis, there are ongoing methodological challenges to conducting observational and clinical studies on cannabis.

Authors: Philippe Lucas, Susan Boyd, M.-J. Milloy and Zach Walsh

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :34

Content type: Original research

Published on: 28 July 2021

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The use and effects of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists by New South Wales cannabis treatment clients

Despite decreasing consumption by general populations, use of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) persists in some marginalised groups, including those who use other substances. This article explor.

Authors: Melissa A. Jackson, Amanda L. Brown, Jennifer Johnston, Richard Clancy, Iain McGregor, Raimondo Bruno, Nick Lintzeris, Mark Montebello, Jennifer Luksza, Jenny Bowman, Nghi Phung, Dave Allsop and Adrian J. Dunlop

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :33

Content type: Original research

Published on: 26 July 2021

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Processing and extraction methods of medicinal cannabis: a narrative review

As the cannabis industry transitions from a black market to a legal market, product development, and methods of extraction have become a focal point. To date, more than thousands of chemical constituents have .

Authors: Masoumeh Pourseyed Lazarjani, Owen Young, Lidya Kebede and Ali Seyfoddin

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :32

Content type: Review

Published on: 19 July 2021

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Assessing the treatment of cannabidiolic acid methyl ester: a stable synthetic analogue of cannabidiolic acid on c-Fos and NeuN expression in the hypothalamus of rats

Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychotropic compound from Cannabis sativa, shows positive results on controlling several health disturbances; however, comparable data regarding additional chemical from C. sativa, suc.

Authors: Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Diana Millán-Aldaco, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Roger G. Pertwee, Linda Parker and Raphael Mechoulam

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :31

Content type: Brief research report

Published on: 12 July 2021

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Study of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) extraction FROM dried oral fluid spots (DOFS) and LC–MS/MS detection

Oral fluid is a widely studied matrix able to isolate the primary Cannabis constituent THC, facilitating its detection via mass spectrometry, and in most cases link these findings to recent drug use. As an alt.

Authors: Roberta Gorziza, Joseph Cox, Renata Pereira Limberger and Luis E. Arroyo-Mora

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :30

Content type: Original research

Published on: 12 July 2021

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Form and content of Jamaican cannabis edibles

In 2017, the Jamaican government banned the sale of cannabis-infused edibles after reports of over-intoxication in adults and children. There is a general lack of public awareness regarding the risk involved w.

Authors: Carole M. Lindsay, Wendel D. Abel, Erica E. Jones-Edwards, Paul D. Brown, Khalia K. Bernard and Tainia T. Taylor

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :29

Content type: Original research

Published on: 10 July 2021

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Density of medical and recreational cannabis outlets: racial/ethnic differences in the associations with young adult intentions to use cannabis, e-cigarettes, and cannabis mixed with tobacco/nicotine

Differences in access to medical versus recreational cannabis outlets and their associations with intentions to use cannabis have not yet been examined among young adults. This study compares the associations .

Authors: Regina A. Shih, Joan S. Tucker, Eric R. Pedersen, Rachana Seelam, Michael S. Dunbar, Aaron Kofner, Caislin Firth and Elizabeth J. D’Amico

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :28

Content type: Original research

Published on: 9 July 2021

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Recreational cannabis legalization and alcohol purchasing: a difference-in-differences analysis

Whether recreational cannabis legalization is associated with changes in alcohol consumption (suggesting a potential substitution or complementary relationship) is a key question as cannabis policy evolves, pa.

Authors: Collin M. Calvert and Darin Erickson

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :27

Content type: Original research

Published on: 7 July 2021

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Medicinal cannabis: knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of Colombian psychiatrists

The use of cannabinoids in mental health has gained strength in recent years due to emerging scientific evidence and the lifting of prohibitionist laws that prevailed for years in many countries, including Col.

Authors: Juan Manuel Orjuela-Rojas, Xiomara García Orjuela and Sabina Ocampo Serna

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :26

Content type: Original research

Published on: 5 July 2021

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Potential impacts of soil microbiota manipulation on secondary metabolites production in cannabis

Cannabis growing practices and particularly indoor cultivation conditions have a great influence on the production of cannabinoids. Plant-associated microbes may affect nutrient acquisition by the plant. Howev.

Authors: Bulbul Ahmed and Mohamed Hijri

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :25

Content type: Review

Published on: 3 July 2021

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Editor’s note to: A cannabis oracle? Delphi method not a substitute for randomized controlled trials of cannabinoids as therapeutics

Authors: David A. Gorelick

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :24

Content type: Commentary

Published on: 2 July 2021

The original article was published in Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3:23

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A cannabis oracle? Delphi method not a substitute for randomized controlled trials of cannabinoids as therapeutics

With millions of people using cannabinoids to treat a host of medical conditions, clinicians want guidance on how to utilize cannabinoids as pharmacotherapy in their practices. The Delphi method is a systemati.

Authors: Kevin P. Hill and Donald I. Abrams

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :23

Content type: Commentary

Published on: 2 July 2021

The original article was published in Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3:22

The Commentary to this article has been published in Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3:24

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Consensus recommendations on dosing and administration of medical cannabis to treat chronic pain: results of a modified Delphi process

Globally, medical cannabis legalization has increased in recent years and medical cannabis is commonly used to treat chronic pain. However, there are few randomized control trials studying medical cannabis ind.

Authors: Arun Bhaskar, Alan Bell, Michael Boivin, Wellington Briques, Matthew Brown, Hance Clarke, Claude Cyr, Elon Eisenberg, Ricardo Ferreira de Oliveira Silva, Eva Frohlich, Peter Georgius, Malcolm Hogg, Tina Ingrid Horsted, Caroline A. MacCallum, Kirsten R. Müller-Vahl, Colleen O’Connell…

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :22

Content type: Original research

Published on: 2 July 2021

The Commentary to this article has been published in Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3:23

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Electronic cigarette and cannabis use: results from the 2018 Maryland Youth Risk Behavior Survey

To determine the relationship between lifetime e-cigarette use and current cannabis use among youth. Our analyses accounted for county variability, in addition to student-level covariates.

Authors: Amanda Luken, Johannes Thrul and Renee M. Johnson

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :21

Content type: Brief research report

Published on: 25 June 2021

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Evaluation of cannabidiol’s inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase and its stability in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been reported to have anti-diabetic effects in pre-clinical and clinical studies but its inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase, a carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme, remain unknown. Herein, we ev.

Authors: Hang Ma, Huifang Li, Chang Liu and Navindra P. Seeram

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :20

Content type: Brief research report

Published on: 23 June 2021

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Cannabidiol use and effectiveness: real-world evidence from a Canadian medical cannabis clinic

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a primary component in the cannabis plant; however, in recent years, interest in CBD treatments has outpaced scientific research and regulatory advancement resulting in a confusing landsca.

Authors: Lucile Rapin, Rihab Gamaoun, Cynthia El Hage, Maria Fernanda Arboleda and Erin Prosk

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :19

Content type: Original research

Published on: 23 June 2021

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Correction to: Industrial hemp as an agricultural crop in Ghana

Authors: Nana Osei Owusu, Benedict Arthur and Emmanuel Mensah Aboagye

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :18

Content type: Correction

Published on: 5 June 2021

The original article was published in Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3:9

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Cannabis use frequency, route of administration, and co-use with alcohol among older adults in Washington state

The US national surveys and data from legal adult use cannabis states show increases in the prevalence of cannabis use among older adults, though little is known about their manner of cannabis consumption. Her.

Authors: Meenakshi S. Subbaraman and William C. Kerr

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :17

Content type: Original research

Published on: 3 June 2021

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Predictors of cannabis and tobacco co-use in youth: exploring the mediating role of age at first use in the population assessment of tobacco health (PATH) study

Adolescents often use substances such as tobacco and cannabis. Co-use of these substances can lead to physical, mental, and psychosocial difficulties beyond that which would be anticipated by simple additivity.

Authors: Crystal Lederhos Smith, Brittany Rhoades Cooper, Andre Miguel, Laura Hill, John Roll and Sterling McPherson

Citation: Journal of Cannabis Research 2021 3 :16

Content type: Original research

Published on: 1 June 2021

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Comparing medical cannabis use in 5 US states: a retrospective database study

US states have been adopting their own medical cannabis laws since 1996. There is substantial variability in the medical cannabis programs between states, and these differences have not been thoroughly investi.

Authors: V. Kishan Mahabir, Christopher S. Smith, Christopher Vannabouathong, Jamil J. Merchant and Alisha L. Garibaldi