can you use cbd oil for pain while pregnant

CBD Cream and Pregnancy: Is It Safe to Use While Pregnant or Breastfeeding?

More moms are using CBD creams to relieve localized discomfort and manage stretch marks during pregnancy. Some bolder women even take products like CBD oil to ease anxiety, pain, and insomnia, although experts advise that ingestible forms of CBD should be avoided due to their ability to penetrate the placenta.

But, since CBD creams don’t even make it to the bloodstream, they seem to be a safer option during pregnancy.

However, pregnancy and breastfeeding are very sensitive topics when it comes to supplementation — and things are no different with natural, organic compounds like CBD.

In this article, we answer whether or not CBD cream is safe during pregnancy — and why some specialists are concerned.

Why Pregnant Women Are Considering the Use of CBD

CBD is a cannabis-derived compound that can be extracted from hemp or marijuana. Hemp-based CBD products are federally legal because they contain 0.3% or less THC — which isn’t enough to cause a high. They’re also legal on a federal level.

As a modulator of the endocannabinoid system — the prime regulatory network in our bodies — CBD uses multiple mechanisms that produce a wide range of health benefits.

These benefits sound alluring for soon-to-be moms considering the changes that take place in a woman’s body during pregnancy.

Pregnant women are turning to CBD for pain, nausea, anxiety, sleeplessness, fatigue, and mood swings caused by hormonal shifts.

Better yet, these effects are among the best-researched therapeutic properties of CBD — only adding up to its appeal.

However, since pregnancy is a very delicate period during a woman’s life — both in terms of hormones and other physiological changes taking place in the body — it’s important to determine if CBD products are as safe for expecting moms as it is for non-pregnant women.

Can You Use CBD During Pregnancy? Is CBD Cream Safe for Babies?

This is an easy question with a not-so-easy answer.

Long story short, there hasn’t been any proof showing that CBD is safe during pregnancy or even for breastfeeding moms — nor are there any studies suggesting that CBD topicals are dangerous for them.

Health authorities say it’s best to err on the side of caution and abstain from using CBD cream during pregnancy until experts can fully explain how it affects moms-to-be and the growing fetus.

Natural remedies are often considered safer than man-made pharmaceuticals, but then again, pregnancy and breastfeeding are different stories. The studies on CBD and pregnancy are few and far between, not to mention that none of them has touched the subject of using CBD cream during pregnancy.

So, Is CBD Cream Safe During Pregnancy?

Doctors advise women to avoid using CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids during pregnancy. The current stance of the medical community on this subject stems from the body of research regarding THC.

THC, which is CBD’s cousin, crosses the placenta and therefore may end up in breast milk.

THC may also affect a baby’s brain growth. It is also linked to stillbirth at or after 20 weeks of gestation.

Although CBD has been shown to counteract the effects of THC on the brain of adults and adolescents, we still don’t know how it affects fetal development and the further growth of the baby.

The main concern about using CBD cream during pregnancy is that cannabidiol influences female hormones, especially estrogen, which is linked to reproductive health. Although moderate modulation of the endocannabinoid system is believed to ensure hormonal balance and proper reproductive functions, taking CBD while pregnant can breach that threshold and disturb hormones.

For the same reason, women are advised to avoid CBD products when taking estrogen-based contraceptive pills.

To wrap it up, if you’re a mom-to-be, it’s your responsibility to do the research on CBD products, especially in the current state of the market.

CBD products are federally legal, but they’re not FDA approved, meaning you have to trust that the manufacturer follows organic farming practices, eco-friendly extraction methods, and meticulous third-party testing. Doing so will help you make sure that your CBD cream is free of contaminants like pesticides, heavy metals, and bacteria.

Can CBD Cream Reach Your Bloodstream?

When it comes to taking CBD cream during pregnancy, bioavailability is the name of the game.

Bioavailability refers to the leftover amount of an active compound that the body can use once it has been metabolized by the liver. Vaporized CBD demonstrates the highest bioavailability — followed by sublingual and oral products.

With topicals like CBD cream, it’s very difficult to measure their bioavailability because theoretically, none of the CBD reaches the bloodstream. The cannabinoid doesn’t penetrate the deeper layers of the skin unless it’s a transdermal product.

Instead, CBD interacts with the cutaneous endocannabinoid system, specifically with the CB2 receptors.

If you were willing to risk using a CBD-containing product during pregnancy, we would advise creams.

Again, before you purchase any CBD product while pregnant, speak to a holistic doctor so that you can whey the risks and benefits and make a well-thought-out decision.

What Mothers Are Saying About Using CBD Cream During Pregnancy

When you search the internet for anecdotal reports from mothers who have been using CBD cream during pregnancy, you may notice that most of them are swearing by CBD’s efficacy and safety — claiming that it had no negative effects on the development of their children.

The most commonly mentioned health conditions include morning sickness, sleeplessness, pain, stress and anxiety, and food aversions.

Morning sickness can be particularly disturbing, especially when it turns into hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), a condition characterized by chronic, severe morning sickness, where a woman can get sick up to 30 times a day and isn’t able to nourish herself, constantly flirting with dehydration.

CBD seems an appealing alternative to such conditions, considering a slew of potential side effects involved in taking medicines that are typically prescribed by doctors.

Some researchers believe that CBD can curb anxiety during pregnancy due to its interaction with serotonin, GABA, and cannabinoid receptors, which also modulate sensations of nausea.

Do Experts Share Their Enthusiasm?

Most ob-gyns would express concern and remain hesitant about recommending CBD use during pregnancy due to the lack of conclusive research on its safety in pregnant women.

In other words, CBD supplementation and pregnancy are due to the unknown. What we need is long-term research as to what happens in children years after taking CBD by their mothers. We currently lack this data, so any woman using CBD during pregnancy should be aware of this and base their decision on consultation with their doctor.

According to Felice Gersh, MD, who is ob-gyn and the founder/director of the Integrative Medical practice of Irvine in California, the production of CBD supplements is poorly regulated in most states. Until that changes, she advises her pregnant patients to avoid using CBD.

On the other hand, since the federal government lifted the ban on hemp, scientists have been fuelling massive resources into research on the efficacy and safety of hemp-derived CBD. The market has also matured over the years, ultimately leading to safer and better-quality products for consumers.

These advancements, along with the social, political, and scientific shifts of attitude toward CBD, may ultimately reshape experts’ take on CBD cream during pregnancy. In the meantime, it’s important that women work with their health care providers to create a safe supplementation plan that is best for them.

Where to Buy CBD Cream

CBD products can be found virtually everywhere, from wellness centers to beauty shops to cannabis dispensaries and large retail stores. However, no two CBD products are created equal. In fact, there can be a world of difference between two seemingly identical CBD creams.

See also  cbd oil for pain management

If you want to make sure your product contains the right amount of CBD, doesn’t breach the THC limit, and is free of contaminants, you need to look for third-party lab reports that relate to the specific batch. Third-party testing is the only way to verify the claims of your vendor.

When you shop for CBD creams locally, the store’s owner may not have these certificates of analysis available for view, so you need to rely on what they consider a high-quality product. As a pregnant woman, giving a leap of faith of that size can be too risky for the child.

If you’re looking for the best deals on high-quality CBD creams, lab-tested products, choose from one of the reputable online stores that meet the said quality and safety criteria. Online brands are usually run by experts whose entire business revolves around hemp-derived supplements. On top of that, since online stores don’t have to deal with the middleman, customers can take advantage of gift cards, coupon codes, or reward programs to save money on top-quality CBD creams.

Key Takeaways on Using CBD Cream During Pregnancy

CBD has an excellent safety profile. According to different health organizations, such as the WHO, the cannabinoid is safe and well-tolerated, even in doses such as 1,500 mg taken daily for several weeks.

However, this data doesn’t involve pregnant and breastfeeding women because it is unethical to run scientific experiments on such subjects. This means that the research on using CBD cream during pregnancy is scarce, and we need more insight from animal models to start assessing the safety of CBD in soon-to-be moms.

CBD can also affect female reproductive hormones, which is the main reason medical experts advise pregnant women to avoid CBD until they give birth.

If you’re considering using CBD during pregnancy, CBD creams are safer than ingestible forms because the CBD doesn’t pass into the bloodstream. That being said, this idea should always be consulted with a doctor who is knowledgeable about cannabis and its effects on fetal development.

Did you take CBD when you were pregnant? How did it turn out for your child? Share your stories in the comment section below!

Sources:

  1. Thompson, R., DeJong, K., & Lo, J. (2019). Marijuana Use in Pregnancy: A Review. Obstetrical & gynecological survey, 74(7), 415–428. https://doi.org/10.1097/OGX.0000000000000685 (1)
  2. Natale, B.V., Gustin, K.N., Lee, K. et al. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure during rat pregnancy leads to symmetrical fetal growth restriction and labyrinth-specific vascular defects in the placenta. Sci Rep 10, 544 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-57318-6 (2)
  3. Niesink, R. J., & van Laar, M. W. (2013). Does Cannabidiol Protect Against Adverse Psychological Effects of THC?. Frontiers in psychiatry, 4, 130. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00130
  4. Almada, M., Amaral, C., Oliveira, A., Fernandes, P. A., Ramos, M. J., Fonseca, B. M., Correia-da-Silva, G., & Teixeira, N. (2020). Cannabidiol (CBD) but not tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dysregulate in vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells by disruption of estrogen signaling. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), 93, 75–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.01.003 (4)
  5. Sales, A. J., Crestani, C. C., Guimarães, F. S., & Joca, S. (2018). Antidepressant-like effect induced by Cannabidiol is dependent on brain serotonin levels. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, 86, 255–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.06.002
  6. Bakas, T., van Nieuwenhuijzen, P. S., Devenish, S. O., McGregor, I. S., Arnold, J. C., & Chebib, M. (2017). The direct actions of cannabidiol and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol at GABAAreceptors. Pharmacological research, 119, 358–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2017.02.022 (6)
Nina Julia

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

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CBD Oil and Pregnancy: Safety & Efficacy For Maternity

Pregnancy can be both a beautiful and uncomfortable experience. Many expecting mothers experience cramping, insomnia, anxiety, morning sickness, and many more symptoms throughout the course of their pregnancy.

One of the newer and more exciting health supplements to hit the market recently that’s been shown to support many of these symptoms is CBD Oil. This oil is made from one of the active compounds in the hemp plant known as cannabidiol — CBD.

But exactly what is CBD oil? How do you take it, and what effects can it have on your pregnancy? Read on to learn everything you need to know about taking CBD oil during pregnancy.

What is CBD Oil and Is It Safe During Pregnancy?

CBD stands for cannabidiol — one of over 400 different compounds found in the cannabis plant. The chemical structure of CBD is unique in that it closely resembles some of the hormones produced by our body known as the endocannabinoids.

The similarities in the structure of CBD to these hormones allow CBD to interact with the endocannabinoid system — made up of a series of receptors around the human body. This system has many uses but the most important is its role in regulating homeostasis (balance).

This ability to interact with regulatory systems like the endocannabinoid system is what gives CBD so many health benefits. Instead of working through just one organ, it’s able to interact with organs all around the body.

CBD has been shown to support muscle relaxation (such as cramping or muscle injuries) [4], boost immune function [5], reduce inflammation [6], block excessive pain transmission from reaching the brain [7], and regulate the nausea center in the brain to fight morning sickness and other forms of nausea or vomiting [3].

You can find CBD in many different forms, including capsules, edibles, and oils. Out of all the different types of CBD products, CBD oils are the most popular. They’re easy to use, the dose can be tailored to match your specific needs, and they have a long shelf life.

What’s the Difference Between CBD & THC?

CBD and THC are the two most common compounds in the cannabis plant. Both compounds are similar in structure — they even have the same molecular structure: 30 hydrogen atoms, 21 carbon atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms.

Although similar in structure, CBD and THC each have a very different effect on the body.

THC is the main psychoactive compound in the marijuana plant — it’s what produces the high associated with marijuana use. It works by stimulating the endocannabinoid receptors in the body, activating the release of serotonin, and other neurotransmitters.

CBD, on the other hand, is completely non-psychoactive. It doesn’t activate the endocannabinoid receptors directly, and will instead work indirectly by slowing the breakdown of our naturally occurring endocannabinoids.

It also interacts with other receptors in the body associated with inflammation and the transmission of pain in the spinal cord. Many of the medicinal effects associated with cannabis owe these benefits to the CBD content.

In basic terms — THC makes you high, CBD makes you feel better.

All cannabis plants manufacture both CBD and THC — however, depending on the type of cannabis, the ratios can be radically different. There are big differences between hemp and marijuana plants where CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids are extracted.

Hemp plants, for example, produce almost no THC but will contain high levels of CBD instead.

Marijuana plants (the type people smoke to get high), are the opposite, producing primarily the psychoactive cannabinoid THC and lower levels of CBD.

For the context of this article, the CBD oils we’re talking about are all made from the hemp plant — not marijuana.

Why Are Pregnant Women Taking CBD Oil?

Pregnancy, in all its beauty, places a lot of strain on the body. There are a lot of side-effects pregnant women may experience that can impact daily life — some more severe than others.

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For example, a common condition a large number of women experience during pregnancy is hyperemesis gravidarum — excessive morning sickness.

This condition can be debilitating, making it nearly impossible to leave the house when it’s at its worst. Additionally, frequent vomiting can easily result in dehydration — which is dangerous for both the mother and baby.

There are medications available for this condition, but most of them come with their own set of negative side-effects.

One such medication doctors frequently prescribe is called Prochlorperazine. This medication stops the feeling of nausea by acting directly on the nausea center of the brain. The problem is that it also causes side-effects such as insomnia, dizziness, blurred vision, and anxiety. It merely shifts the problem from nausea to something else.

CBD is becoming one of the most popular alternatives to medications like this for expectant mothers. It offers many of the same benefits of reducing nausea symptoms — without the negative side effects.

In fact, CBD actually addresses many of the side-effects anti-nausea medications like Prochlorperazine produce — including anxiety and insomnia.

This is only one example, but there are a number of different reasons why pregnant women are seeking out CBD-infused products to support various symptoms throughout the course of their pregnancy.

The most common reasons pregnant women may want to consider using CBD supplements:

  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Cramping
  • Sleeping problems and insomnia
  • Anxiety
  • Mood disorders

Are Cannabinoids Safe During Pregnancy?

There are well over 67 different cannabinoids in the cannabis plant — only a small handful of which are psychoactive. This includes THC as the primary psychoactive component.

The first thing we need to make crystal clear here is that THC-containing products, like marijuana, are not safe during pregnancy. There’s evidence that suggests smoking marijuana during pregnancy results in a lowered birth-weight and delays in brain development [1, 2].

When we smoke marijuana or use products that contain THC — we have to remember that this compound is going to pass straight through the placental barrier and interact with our baby’s brain.

This goes for most other supplements we take while pregnant. Everything we put into our body will ultimately reach the baby — everything from the food we eat to the air we breathe.

But What About CBD & Other Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoids?

There are experts who are hesitant to recommend CBD during pregnancy — but this isn’t because the compound is inherently dangerous in any way — in fact, there’s a lot of anecdotal evidence [9] and preliminary research [10], indicating that CBD is indeed safe during pregnancy.

The hesitation of CBD comes purely from the lack of research available on the topic.

Currently, there’s no long-term research available in the scientific literature exploring whether CBD oil is safe and effective during pregnancy — However, there isn’t anything that proves this compound is dangerous either.. This is a topic that’s been relatively ignored despite the widespread interest in cannabis research in recent decades.

Without the research to prove that CBD is indeed safe and effective during various stages of pregnancy — most experts will err on the side of caution and avoid it.

This lack of pregnancy-specific research is common when it comes to health supplements. Many supplements thought to be safe and effective are generally avoided anyway simply due to the lack of research.

There Are 3 Good Reasons for This Lack of Research:

1. It’s Hard to Get Research Involving Pregnant Patients Approved

In order to conduct any research, especially on humans, a professional ethics board needs to approve the study parameters. These boards are especially strict when it comes to pregnancy and will often deny any research requests if there hasn’t already been enough proof that the substance is safe through other studies.

2. Pregnancy Makes it Hard to Account for All the Variables of the Study

Pregnancy is a complex chemical process and affects women differently. No pregnancy is alike — we all experience the side-effects differently.

This makes it very hard to study the effects of a supplement like CBD because what might work for one person won’t for another — not because the CBD doesn’t work, but because the causes of that particular symptom might be different from one person to the next. This makes interpreting the data into something meaningful very challenging.

3. Research Takes Place Over Long Periods of Time

The last point we’ll touch here is that the research for determining the safety of a health supplement needs to be done over long periods of time — often several years.

Research like this is tedious and very expensive. A single randomized, double-blind clinical trial can cost several million dollars and take a decade or more to complete.

There are institutions that will pay for research like this, but as of yet, no one has stepped up to take it on for this particular question.

There are simply other areas of interest more important to research at the moment (like some of the exciting clinical trials currently underway exploring the use of CBD with anxiety or other common medical conditions).

On top of that, there simply isn’t any indication that CBD poses any threat to a fetus or pregnant mother as it is. It would be nice to have some rock-solid research behind us to definitively prove it — but there’s a good chance all this time and effort will only prove what we already know — that CBD poses little threat during pregnancy.

There Are Virtually No Indications That CBD is Unsafe During Pregnancy

Despite the lack of research on using CBD during pregnancy, there are virtually no examples of research to draw on that suggest the compound is unsafe.

In an ideal world, you won’t need to take anything during your pregnancy aside from wholesome food and mild herbal teas. However, sometimes you may need relief from the uncomfortable symptoms of pregnancy.

CBD is an excellent option to try before escalating to some of the more harmful pharmaceutical options doctors may prescribe in its place.

Women around the world are using CBD to manage spikes in uncomfortable symptoms and avoid using pharmaceutical drugs as much as possible during their pregnancy. This has been going on for years, and I have yet to hear of even one case study to suggest CBD has any significant adverse effects on the mother or the baby.

With that said, there are a few important steps you can take to keep your level of risk to a minimum when using CBD, as well as any other supplement while pregnant.

How to Use CBD Safely While Pregnant?

1. Start Low & Go Slow

When it comes to using health supplements during pregnancy, the key is to start low and slow — meaning that you should always start with the lowest possible dose, and build it up gradually until you reach the recommended dosage.

2. Talk to Your Doctor Before Using CBD

It’s also important to remain transparent with your doctor about any health supplement you plan on taking.

Pregnancy is a complex process, and there are a number of individual factors to consider depending on other medical conditions you may have and what medications you may be taking.

Your doctor has the medical know-how to decide whether CBD is appropriate for your individual case.

3. Keep Notes on Your Doses and Progress

One of the best steps you can take when introducing a new supplement or medication in your health regimen is to take notes of your dose and how you respond to it during the course of the treatment. This will help you and your medical practitioner understand how the CBD or other supplement is working (or not).

See also  cbd oil for menopause
Keep Track of Things Like:
  • What dose of CBD did you take?
  • How did your symptoms feel today?
  • Were symptoms improved after taking the CBD?
  • Did you experience any side-effects?
  • Which CBD product did you take?

5. Only Use High-Quality Products

Many health supplements are unregulated — meaning that virtually anybody can buy the raw materials and put together health supplements. This leaves a lot of room for low-quality products on the market — some of which contain harmful compounds you wouldn’t want to bring anywhere near your baby.

In the case of CBD oils, the biggest problem is the contamination of heavy metals, pesticides, and organic solvents. All of these things can be harmful to the health of your baby.

Luckily, there’s a solution to this issue — which comes in the form of third-party testing.

This is an optional step CBD manufactures can do to prove the quality of the products they produce. A company will send a sample of its batch of products to an independent lab (not connected to the company). This lab will test the sample and provide a detailed analysis of the heavy metal, pesticide, solvent, and organic contaminant contents.

I recommend doing some research before you buy. Look for these third-party tests and make sure they’ve all passed before you buy that particular product.

You may also want to consider using creams during your pregnancy as they are safer than ingestible forms because the CBD doesn’t pass into the bloodstream.

6. Use CBD Products Made from Isolate Only

There are two main types of CBD product available — full-spectrum extracts and CBD isolate.

Full-spectrum extracts contain all the phytochemicals naturally produced in cannabis, while CBD isolate has had all compounds except the CBD removed.

While both options have their own positives and negatives, for pregnancy it’s recommended that you opt for a CBD isolate. These products have removed the other cannabinoids, including THC — which is considered unsafe during pregnancy.

This way you can rest assured the only compound you’re using is the one you planned for — CBD.

How to Use CBD Products (After Pregnancy)?

There are a few different ways you can use CBD oils. Let’s go over the three most common.

1. Oral Ingestion

Most expectant mothers who take CBD oil choose to orally ingest the oil.

This simply involves applying the dropper directly in the mouth and swallowing the oil. Alternatively, you can mix the oil in with a smoothie or other meal to disguise the naturally bitter flavor.

The bottom line is that CBD oil taken this way ends up in the gut where it’s absorbed over the course of about 2 hours into the bloodstream.

CBD oil products can be purchased online from trusted vendors such as CBDistillery, Royal CBD, Charlotte’s Web. They come in a variety of options (ranging from 250mg, 500mg to 1000mg) in the form of tinctures, beverages, edibles, and capsules, which are all easily consumed.

2. Sublingual Administration

“Sublingual” refers to holding something underneath your tongue where the oil and active ingredients are absorbed by the capillaries beneath the tongue.

This means of administration produces effects relatively quickly (within about 15 minutes). Once done, you can simply swallow what’s left of the oil.

This form of administration is best for symptoms that appear suddenly as it allows you to address them in a shorter window of time.

3. Topical Application

You can also use CBD oils topically for things such as skin irritations, inflammation, wounds, and muscle aches. This form of use has far fewer restrictions than other forms of supplementation and is the safest form of administration.

Only a small fraction of the CBD content actually makes its way into the bloodstream when used topically. So you can use higher doses, and you don’t need to be as cautious about monitoring for side-effects.

With that said, this form of administration will only provide relief for symptoms involving the skin and muscles. It won’t do much for any of the systemic effects CBD is suggested to support.

I know many women that use CBD oil topically in this way on the abdomen for cramping and on the lower back to alleviate pain.

Final Thoughts: Using CBD During Pregnancy

There are many reasons why a pregnant mother may want to give CBD a try. This compound is useful for common side-effects experienced by pregnant women — including muscle cramping, abdominal pain, headaches, insomnia, anxiety, and nausea.

The safety of CBD during pregnancy is taken with a lot of caution — and with good reason, we don’t have any reliable studies to prove or disprove the safety of this compound on the developing fetus.

We’re caught in a situation where CBD hasn’t been proven safe, nor has it been proven unsafe.

Therefore, the best course of action is to remain cautious when using CBD oil. This is the case with all supplements while pregnant.

Pay attention to how your body responds and be transparent with your doctor about anything you’re taking or thinking of taking while pregnant.

With all of that said, there really isn’t any clear reasons why CBD would pose any danger to yourself or your baby. There have been dozens of studies on the supplement with populations including small children — all of which have concluded that CBD is both a safe and effective supplement for a wide range of symptoms — even at high doses.

References:

  1. Jaques, S. C., Kingsbury, A., Henschke, P., Chomchai, C., Clews, S., Falconer, J., … & Oei, J. L. (2014). Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths. Journal of Perinatology, 34(6), 417.
  2. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: The current state of evidence and recommendations for research. National Academies Press.
  3. Choukèr, A., Kaufmann, I., Kreth, S., Hauer, D., Feuerecker, M., Thieme, D., … & Schelling, G. (2010). Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system. PloS one, 5(5), e10752.
  4. Su, J. Y., & Vo, A. C. (2007). 2-Arachidonyl Glyceryl ether and abnormal cannabidiol-induced vascular smooth muscle relaxation in rabbit pulmonary arteries via receptor-pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins-ERK1/2 signaling. European journal of pharmacology, 559(2-3), 189-195.
  5. Cabral, G. A., Raborn, E. S., Griffin, L., Dennis, J., & Marciano‐Cabral, F. (2008). CB2 receptors in the brain: role in central immune function. British journal of pharmacology, 153(2), 240-251.
  6. Burstein, S. (2015). Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry, 23(7), 1377-1385.
  7. Russo, E. B. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 4(1), 245.
  8. Crippa, J. A., Crippa, A., Hallak, J. E., Martín-Santos, R., & Zuardi, A. W. (2016). Δ9-THC intoxication by cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extract in two children with refractory epilepsy: full remission after switching to purified cannabidiol. Frontiers in pharmacology, 7, 359.
  9. Porter, B. E., & Jacobson, C. (2013). Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 29(3), 574-577.

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Livvy Ashton

Livvy is a registered nurse (RN) and board-certified nurse midwife (CNM) in the state of New Jersey. After giving birth to her newborn daughter, Livvy stepped down from her full-time position at the Children’s Hospital of New Jersey. This gave her the opportunity to spend more time writing articles on all topics related to pregnancy and prenatal care.

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